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    Access to drinking water and

    sanitation in Bulgaria

    Assoc. Prof. Galia Bardarska, Ph.D.

    Bulgarian Academy of Sciencesbardarska@dir.bg

    see@s-e-e.org

    Equitable accessto water, Paris,

    5-6 July 2007

    mailto:bardarska@dir.bgmailto:bardarska@dir.bg
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    Bulgaria is part of the 5th EU enlargement

    - January 1, 2007

    Area 110993.6 km2

    Population7 718 750 (2005)

    70% of totalpopulation in the

    towns

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    Total number of settlements in the country 5332

    (31.12.2005)

    Number of settlements with inhabitants number

    less then 2000 - 4941 (31.12.2005) of which: 19 towns;

    2 monasteries;

    4922 villages

    Total number of inhabitants living in thesettlements with less then 2000 inhabitants

    1 881 387 inhabitants or 24.4% of total population

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    NATALITY, MORTALITY AND NATURAL INCREASEPer 1 000 population

    The decline is entirely due to the negative natural increase of the population, i.e.the significantly greater number of deaths compared to that of live births.

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    After reaching the high level in 1997 -17.5, the rate decrease in the next yearsand reaches 11.6 in 2004. In 2005, 739children up to the age of 1 year died in

    Bulgaria, with the infant mortality ratedecreasing to 10.4.

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    Educational Status of the Population between 25 and

    64 Years of Age in Rural and Urban Areas (2001,NSI)

    16.9

    35.9

    51.9

    43.4

    20.6

    5.5

    0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

    Urban

    RuralIlliterate

    Primary education

    Low er secondary

    Secondary education

    College

    University

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    An EU directive pits environmentalists against developers in BulgariaEU directive starts battle in Bulgaria over sites that will be protected

    By Matthew Brunwasser

    Published: February 23, 2007

    International Herald Tribune

    Bulgaria is the poorest and one of the leasteconomically developed countries in theEU, with monthly wages of 182, or $238.

    Gross domestic product, measured indollars, was $3,328 per capita in 2005,compared to the $29,207 average for the

    then EU- 25.

    http://www.iht.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=By%20Matthew%20Brunwasser&sort=publicationdate&submit=Searchhttp://www.iht.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?query=By%20Matthew%20Brunwasser&sort=publicationdate&submit=Search
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    GDP (2005): 25=100France=109; Bulgaria = 32

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    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Low Income Middle Income High Income

    Development level

    Typical shift in national priorities according to development levels

    Environmental Sustainability

    Economic Development

    Water Supply & Sanitation

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    0

    200000

    400000

    600000

    800000

    1000000

    1200000

    Wate

    r,thousand

    m3/year

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    2005

    Year

    Public water supply system in Bulgaria

    Water supply Water lossess

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    Structure of water-supply network by

    type of pipes

    75.3% Asbestos cement

    14.6% Steel pipes

    2.9% Zinc-coated

    3.6% PE

    0.4% PVC

    3.2% Others

    2005

    Water-supply network69043 km

    Water-supply network built in

    20.2% By the end of 1960

    37.0% From 1961 to 1970

    22.5% From 1971 to 1980

    13.4% From 1981 to 2000

    5.0% From 1991 to 2000

    1.9% From 2001 to 2005

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    Public water supply -98.9% of totalpopulation:

    - 100% urban areas

    - 84% in rural areas

    4% of total population

    dont have tappedwater in villages

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    There are some villages with 40 l/cap/day

    (WHO limit is 50 l/cap/day)Households consumption in Bulgaria

    132 1

    37

    99

    95

    90 9

    594

    92

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    1

    991

    1

    995

    2

    000

    2

    001

    2

    002

    2

    003

    2

    004

    2

    005

    Year

    Consum

    ption,l

    /cap/d

    Households consumption

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    Prices of drinking water (households)

    Source: Gographie romande des prix de leau -HES

    PRICE OF DRINKING WATER SWITZERLAND

    City /m3

    Sion 0.18

    Martigny 0.19

    Neuchtel 0.78

    Genve 0.79

    La Chaux de Fonds 1.24

    Lausanne 1.31

    PRICE OF DRINKING WATER

    BULGARIA 2005

    Water supply & seweragecompany /m3

    Rakitovo 0.16

    Plovdiv 0.30

    Sofia 0.31

    Veliko Tarnovo 0.55

    Dobrich 0.74

    Razgrad 0.92

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    Costs of water supply in (2005) Bulgaria

    0.05 0.05 0.05 0.02

    0.42 0.440.51

    0.28

    0.92 0.92 0.92

    0.57

    0.00

    0.20

    0.40

    0.60

    0.80

    1.00

    1.20

    Household Public Industry Not drinking

    water

    Minimum

    Average

    Maximum

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    Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water

    intended for human consumptionRegulation No. 9of 16 March 2001 on the

    Quality of Water Intended for HumanConsumption(State Gazette No. 30 of 28May 2001)

    Mi i t f H lth

    http://../recent_doc/legislation/water/en/regulations/Nar.9_vodi.dochttp://../recent_doc/legislation/water/en/regulations/Nar.9_vodi.doc
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    Ministry of Health,

    28 Regional Inspectorate for Protection and

    Control of Public Health

    5892 sources of central drinking water supply were

    monitored, 315 of which being surface water sources. Only 109 surface water sources have treatment

    installations

    24890 samples have been tested in check monitoringand 3332 samples have been tested in audit

    monitoring by the State Health Control

    97.7% of drinking water in the country meets the

    standards in 2006

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    Regions 6, Districts - 28Municipalities - 264

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    84.00%

    86.00%

    88.00%

    90.00%

    92.00%

    94.00%

    96.00%

    98.00%

    100.00%

    2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Year

    Percentage of the value of quality indices according to

    drinking standards, %

    Full (complete) analysis

    Shortened analysis

    Chemical, organoleptic and radiological indices

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    Drinking water treatment plants (43 DWTP) -

    43.2% of total population

    Treatment of drinking water

    in Bulgaria

    55%

    2%

    43%

    Desinfection

    Precipitation and desinfection

    Drinking water treatment plant

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    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    03.10.06

    12:00

    04.10.06

    00:00

    04.10.06

    12:00

    05.10.06

    00:00

    05.10.06

    12:00

    06.10.06

    00:00

    06.10.06

    12:00

    ,

    FAU

    Turbidity of

    drinking

    water after

    drinking

    water

    treatmentplant in

    Kardjaly

    town

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    Main drinking water quality problems Deviations from the microbiological indicators

    Nitrates

    Organoleptic indicators (colour, odour, taste,

    turbidity) Manganese

    Heavy metals indicators (mainly chromium)

    Main reasons: shortages of drinking water(drought), floods, bad water supply systems

    condition and lack of treatment facilities

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    Impacts of drought on drinking water quality

    Gopina G. et al. Chapter 17. Health and Hygienic Aspects of Drought. In: Drought inBulgaria: A Contemporary Analog for Climate Change. Ashgate, UK, 2007, pp. 336

    The study for the drought

    period 1982-1993

    confirmed that rates ofHepatitis A virus and

    Shigelloses morbidity had

    been consistently higheramong large population

    who live in regions with

    insufficient amounts ofdrinking water.

    Area 1993

    Lovech 83.8%

    Dobrich 82.7%

    Montana 77.1%

    Vratsa 57.7%

    Targovishte 50.7%

    Percentage of the population withregular water supply regimes

    during the drought

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    Percentage of samples with nitrates concentrates

    above 50 mg/l

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    88%

    87.1

    8%

    85.9

    0%

    91.22

    %

    91.63

    %

    90.7

    9%

    82%

    84%86%

    88%

    90%92%

    2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year

    Number of control sample for microbiological indices accordingto drinking water standards, %

    P t f l ith i bi l i l i di b li it

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    Percentage of sample with microbiological indices above limits

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    Percentage of samples with concentrations of E. coli and Enterococi

    above limits (Vidin and Burgas above WHO limits)

    - .

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    EU Urb