Banana Breeding in IITA

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Brigitte UwimanaPostdoc Banana BreederIITA UgandaBanana Breeding in IITAIbadan, September 9, 2015

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

On behalf of

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumBanana: members of the genus Musa

Categories: cooking, beer/juice, dessert, ornamental and fiber bananas

Banana breeding in IITA: important for AfricaMatookeMcharePlantainsBanana

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumConstraints

Black SigatokaFusarium wilt

NematodeWeevil

BXW

Banana streak virus

Banana bunchy top virus

Drought

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumCurrent (t/ha)Potential(t/ha)Matooke5 to 3070Plantain7.820

Yield potential

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumThree types of banana in three locationsArusha (Tanzania)Sendusu/Namulonge (Uganda)Ibadan (Nigeria)Mchare: AAMatooke: AAAPlantains: AAB

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

Breeding objectivesArusha (Tanzania)Sendusu/Namulonge (Uganda)Ibadan (Nigeria)MchareMatookePlantainsYieldYieldYieldEarliness, plant statureEarliness, plant statureEarliness, plant statureQualityQualityQualityFusarium wiltBlack SigatokaBlack SigatokaBlack SigatokaWeevilWeevilNematodeNematode

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumThree locations

Mchare: Northern Tanzania, Southern KenyaMatooke: Eastern Africa (400-600 kg/person/year in Uganda)Plantains: Central and Western Africa

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

Arusha Irrigation is a must Possibility of drought experiments

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumArusha

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

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Hosted by NM-AIST12 ha of landOfficesTC lab Molecular lab

TC lab ready in 1 weekInstallation of an irrigation system requiredArusha: at NM-AIST

Free of charge

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumNow:Started in 20121.5 ha for pollination2 ha for germplasm maintenance (collection, mapping populations, NARITAs)0.5 ha for EET0.2 ha for experimentsArusha

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumSendusu/Namulonge

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

Sendusu/Namulonge

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumStarted 20 years agoHosted by NARO4 ha for pollination4 ha for EETs1 ha for PYTs2 ha for GS (training population)1 ha other (demonstration, heterosis)Sendusu/Namulonge

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumIbadan

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumRe-started in 20122 ha PollinationBreeding collectionEETother experiments

Ibadan

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumConventional breeding: slow and expensive

3x 4x 2x 2x 3x10 17 years

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumConventional breeding: slow and expensivePlaying with ploidy

Parthenocarpy

Unpredictable seed production (3x)

Poor seed/embryo germination

Field Tissue culture Screenhouse Field

First selection after 1-2 years

99.9% of the hybrids discarded in EET

1 plant per 6 m2

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumQTL analysis in diploid populationsFusarium wiltWeevilNematodeGenomic selectionYieldAgronomic traitsGWASDroughtParthenocarpy

Speeding up selection

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumGene expressionDrought, parthenocarpyGenomicsSequencing of matooke and plantain breeding material (100 accessions each): AOCC, ICRAFOthersFlower biologyVit.A and, vit. C, PotassiumChromosome doubling Heterosis

Speeding up selection

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumData collected using tablets (Excel)Field Book app being tested in IbadanField note books for pollinationBack-up done on computers every weekPrevious data on pollination digitalized (Namulonge)Previous breeding data in Onne lostNo efficient method of back-up (on-line)No BMSMusabase startedData management

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumProject titleBudgetDurationSourceCRP-RTB67,0002015CRP-RTB (W1/2)CRP-RTB Complementary project100,0002015(2015 2016)CRP-RTB (W1/2)CRP-A4NH10,0002015CRP-A4NH

Improvement of banana for smallholder farmers in the Great Lakes Region of Africa13 M2014 - 2019BMGF (W3)Identification of pVAC-rich plantain varieties, hybrids and orange-fleshed diploids96,0002015(2014 2017)HarvestPlus (W3)Exchange of banana and plantain varieties and hybrids between IITA and EMBRAPA78,0002013 -2015MarketPlace (W3)

On-going projects

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumRony Swennen: Senior Breeder (50%)Allan Brown: Breeder, TanzaniaBrigitte Uwimana: Postdoc breeder, UgandaDelphine Amah: Regional breeding manager, Ibadan

Staff: breeders

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumStaffArusha (Tanzania)Sendusu/Namulonge (Uganda)Ibadan (Nigeria)MchareMatookePlantainsResearch supervisor/associate112Field assistant382TC lab technician221Molec. lab/cytogenetic technician1--Driver-0.5-PhD students341

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumGenetic Resources CenterGermplasm Health UnitNutrition LabBioscience Center

George Mahuku: PathologyDanny Coyne: Nematology, BMGF Project managementIITA collaborators

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumPartnersNARSCGIAR institutionsAdv. Research InstitutesPrivateNARO (Uganda): Host, breeding, genetic studies, pests and diseasesBioversity: regional testing, droughtEMBRAPA (Brazil): breeding, FocCBS (Arusha, Tanzania): large scale multiplicationARI (Tanzania): nematodeAOCC: sequencing IGD, Cornell(USA): genotypingCrop Bioscience (Kampala, Uganda): large scale multiplicationWAAPP NCOS(West Africa): evaluation of hybridsBTI, Cornell (USA): database managementCIRAD: dwarfness in banana

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumPartners (ctnd)UniversitiesNM-AIST(Arusha, Tanzania): HostInstitute of Experimental Botany, Palacky University (Czech Republic): GS studiesStellenbosch University (South Africa): FocUniversity of Queensland (Australia): FocUniversity of the Free State (South Africa): Vit AKU Leuven (Belgium): flower biology, droughtUniversity of Malaya (Malaysia): FocSLU (Sweden): Nematode, weevil, heterosisRoyal Holloway University of London (UK): MetabolomicsMakerere University (Uganda): Flower biology

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumAchievement: 27 NARITAs

NARITA 1NARITA 5

NARITA 7

NARITA 193x 4x 3x

NARITA 17Going for MET in Tanzania and Uganda in 2015

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

Achievement: 27 NARITAsNARITA 1NARITA 5NARITA 7NARITA 19NARITA 1721 for cooking, 5 for juice

All resistant to black Sigatoka

Yield: 9 to 38 t/ha

20 significantly higher than Mbwazirume (11 t/ha)

Going for MET in Tanzania and Uganda in 2015

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

Yield increase up to 225%All resistant to black SigatokaShort growth cycle

7 of them in MET in Ivory Cost, Comoros and DRCAchievement: 16 PITAs

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumFirst EETs in Arusha and Ibadan

Chromosome doubling of 2x in Ibadan

First 4x in the field4x x 2x crossesHybrids in EET

Protocol for metabolomics optimizedAchievement

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumComplicated germplasm exchangeSendusu/Namulonge:TC, molecular, nematology labs all hosted in one very small building No officesBuilding in need of some workGenerator in need of servicing

Key constraints

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

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www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumUnder-staffedFencing of the fieldsIrrigation system: Arusha, Sendusu, IbadanGermplasm identityBar-codingData back-up and storageUnreliable internetAccess to journals (Tanzania and Uganda)Maintenance of hybrids/mapping populationsCryo-preservation

Key constraints

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium

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Breeding:New and superior lines developed in the three groups of banana Nutritional quality: Vit A and C, PotassiumFlower biology understoodHeterotic parental combinations identifiedChromosome doubling adopted in IITA East Africa and NARO

Pests and diseases:Efficient bioassays developed for fast screeningBreeding material tested for resistance to major pests and diseases

Future plans

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumGenetic and genomic studiesGS models developed for yield and agronomic traitsQTLs governing major traits identified (weevil, nematode, Foc, BS, drought)MAS applied for those traitsDiversity, chromosome structure Gene discovery

Musabase functional

NARITAs and PITAs tested and selected in MET

Future plans

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortiumIITA banana breeding teamIITA collaboratorsPartnersW3 donorsRTB

Acknowledgements

www.iita.orgA member of CGIAR consortium