Bacon’s Rebellion ( 1676 - 1677)

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Bacon’s Rebellion (1676 - 1677) Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown

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Bacon’s Rebellion ( 1676 - 1677). Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown. Bacon’s Rebellion ( 1676 - 1677). Nathaniel Bacon, representa a los antiguos sirvientes. Governor William Berkeley of Jamestown. BACON'S REBELLION. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bacons Rebellion(1676 - 1677)

Nathaniel Bacon represents former indentured servants.GovernorWilliam Berkeley of Jamestown1Bacons Rebellion(1676 - 1677)

Nathaniel Bacon, representa a los antiguos sirvientes.GovernorWilliam Berkeley of Jamestown2

BACON'S REBELLIONInvolved former indentured servantsNot accepted in JamestownDisenfranchised and unable to receive their landGov. Berkeley would not defend settlements from Indian attacks

BACON'S REBELLIONInvolucrados ex funcionarios contratadosNo se aceptan en JamestownDisenfranchised y no puede recibir su tierraEl gobernador Berkeley no defendera los asentamientos de ataques de los indios

BACON'S REBELLIONNathaniel Bacon acts as the representative for rebelsGov. Berkeley refused to meet their conditions and erupts into a civil war.Bacon dies, Gov. Berkeley puts down rebellion and several rebels are hungConsequence of Bacons Rebellion Plantation owners gradually replaced indentured servants with African slaves because it was seen as a better investment in the long term than indentured servitude.

BACON'S REBELLIONNathaniel Bacon, acta como representante de los rebeldesEl gobernador Berkeley neg a cumplir sus condiciones y estalla en una guerra civil.Tocino muere, el gobernador Berkeley pone la rebelin y varios rebeldes se cuelganConsequence of Bacons Rebellion . Los dueos de plantaciones reemplazados gradualmente sirvientes con los esclavos africanos, ya que fue visto como una mejor inversin a largo plazo que la servidumbre

By Coach Ketcham78

In most of the French colonies, the tendency was for the settlers to merge their culture with the Indians. In this drawing, white settlers and Indians relaxed together at Vincennes, a French settlement established in the 1720s in what would be later known as the state of Indiana.Life in the French Colonies89

En la mayor parte de las colonias francesas, la tendencia era que los colonos para combinar su cultura con los indios. En este dibujo, los colonos blancos y los indios se relajaron junto al Vincennes, una colonia francesa establecida en la dcada de 1720, en lo que sera ms tarde conocido como el estado de Indiana.Life in the French Colonies910 New France was more than double the size of British Colonies, yet much less populated British more interested in bringing settlers in from the mother country, French more interested in making Native Americans French citizens. They tended to treat Indians as equals and intermarried. French more interested in exploiting new lands economically French tended to develop stronger alliances with IndiansDifferences between French and British colonies10While both France and Britain sought to expand their colonial empires in the New World, they had opposite views about the scope of their colonies. While the English colonial system called for bringing settlers from the mother country to the New World to develop large cities such as Boston and Philadelphia, the French relied more on small settlements of only a few hundred or few thousand people, with their settlers mainly mixing with the Indians as far as trading and trapping. The French settlers also frequently intermarried with Indians, while British settlers rarely did so. They saw Indians as being generally inferior.Because of salutary neglect, the British colonies had grown independent of each other, and it was far more difficult for them to act in a united group. New France, however, was under one single government, and it could act more quickly and decisively.The British colonies also tended to be more close knit, and did not allow for the same amount of religious toleration that the French colonies did.11 Nueva Francia fue ms del doble del tamao de las colonias britnicas, sin embargo, mucho menos poblada

Britnica ms interesados en traer colonos de la metrpoli francesa, ms interesados en la toma de los nativos americanos a los ciudadanos franceses. Ellos tienden a tratar a los indios como iguales y se casaron.

Francs ms interesados en la explotacin de nuevas tierras econmicamente

Francs tiende a desarrollar alianzas ms fuertes con los indiosDifferences between French and British colonies11While both France and Britain sought to expand their colonial empires in the New World, they had opposite views about the scope of their colonies. While the English colonial system called for bringing settlers from the mother country to the New World to develop large cities such as Boston and Philadelphia, the French relied more on small settlements of only a few hundred or few thousand people, with their settlers mainly mixing with the Indians as far as trading and trapping. The French settlers also frequently intermarried with Indians, while British settlers rarely did so. They saw Indians as being generally inferior.Because of salutary neglect, the British colonies had grown independent of each other, and it was far more difficult for them to act in a united group. New France, however, was under one single government, and it could act more quickly and decisively.The British colonies also tended to be more close knit, and did not allow for the same amount of religious toleration that the French colonies did.12Disputed land claims in Western Pennsylvania in 1754 brought two of the greatest world powers to a conflict that spread in both the New World and in Europe. The French and Indian War 1754-1763

12The French and Indian War engulfed not only the New World, but the old as well, as the conflict became known as the Seven Years War in Europe sought to determine who would be the reigning superpower in the World.In the New World, the fighting started with disputed land claims in Western Pennsylvania. In 1754, the French constructed Fort Duquesne at the convergence of the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers. This land had been also deeded to several wealthy planters in the Ohio Territory by the colonial governor of Virginia, and the British sought to demand the French leave the area.13Las reivindicaciones de tierras en disputa en el oeste de Pennsylvania en 1754 trajo dos de las mayores potencias del mundo a un conflicto que se extendi tanto en el Nuevo Mundo y en Europa.The French and Indian War 1754-1763

13The French and Indian War engulfed not only the New World, but the old as well, as the conflict became known as the Seven Years War in Europe sought to determine who would be the reigning superpower in the World.In the New World, the fighting started with disputed land claims in Western Pennsylvania. In 1754, the French constructed Fort Duquesne at the convergence of the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers. This land had been also deeded to several wealthy planters in the Ohio Territory by the colonial governor of Virginia, and the British sought to demand the French leave the area. Great Britain and the IroquoisAlliance - a formal agreement by two or more nations to act together in a causeFrench and Indian War: Alliances France, Spain (1762), Algonquins, and Huronsversus Great Britain and the IroquoisAlliance - un acuerdo formal entre dos o ms naciones a actuar juntos en una causaFrench and Indian War: Alliances France, Spain (1762), Algonquins, and HuronsversusConflicting claims over vast territories Control over St. Lawrence,Great Lakes, Mississippiand Gulf waterways.Religious differences French Catholics vs. British and ProtestantsControl over lucrativebeaver tradeGrand Banks fishing rightsSeething tension from prior wars

Causes

single click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>>

16Revenge, stubborn leaders, scarce resources, religious differences, and control of trade routes are all major reasons why wars start. Both France and England wanted to expand their territories in 1754. They wanted to control land, waters, and trade in America. The countries also had conflicting religious and economic views. To make matters worse, there was still unresolved tension between France and England from three earlier colonial wars. All this put together sparked the conflict between the two superpowers.

Afirmaciones contradictorias? Ms vastos territorios-El control sobre St. Lawrence,? Grandes Lagos, el Mississippi? Y cursos de agua del Golfo.-Las diferencias religiosas -? Catlicos franceses contra britnicos y protestantes?-El control de la lucrativa? Comercio castor-Grandes Bancos derechos de pesca-Tensin hirviente de las guerras anterioresCausessingle click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>>

17Revenge, stubborn leaders, scarce resources, religious differences, and control of trade routes are all major reasons why wars start. Both France and England wanted to expand their territories in 1754. They wanted to control land, waters, and trade in America. The countries also had conflicting religious and economic views. To make matters worse, there was still unresolved tension between France and England from three earlier colonial wars. All this put together sparked the conflict between the two superpowers.

Territorial ClaimsFrench explorers sent to make claimsFrench expeditionssent to remove English settlers and build forts Forts becamekey focal pointsduring the conflict

18The French made big money off the fur trade with Native Americans. They had no intentions in trying to develop land settlements. Instead, France established trading posts and missions along the St. Lawrence waterways.Britain disagreed. The English believed that America had lots of agricultural and trade potential and saw America as a means to feed its growing global empire. English settlers moved westward over the Appalachians to the Ohio River valley, with its fertile soil and strategic watercourse to the Mississippi. The French reacted by sending several military expeditions to remove the settlers and establish forts. French efforts to remove the settlers failed, but their forts became focal points in the developing conflict.

Territorial ClaimsExploradores francs? Enviado a hacer afirmaciones-Expediciones francesas? Enviados para eliminar? Colonos ingleses y construir fortalezas?-Fuertes se convirtieron? Puntos focales clave? Durante el conflicto19The French made big money off the fur trade with Native Americans. They had no intentions in trying to develop land settlements. Instead, France established trading posts and missions along the St. Lawrence waterways.Britain disagreed. The English believed that America had lots of agricultural and trade potential and saw America as a means to feed its growing global empire. English settlers moved westward over the Appalachians to the Ohio River valley, with its fertile soil and strategic watercourse to the Mississippi. The French reacted by sending several military expeditions to remove the settlers and establish forts. French efforts to remove the settlers failed, but their forts became focal points in the developing conflict.

Native American InvolvementDid not form large alliancesFought amongst themselvesAmerican colonists great threatTreaty conflictsFrench allies: Algonquin, Lenape, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Ottawa, ShawneeBritish ally: Iroquois Confederacy

20Native Americans fought against each other as often as they attacked the settlers. The conflict amongst Native Americans made war more complex but helped speed up colonial expansion, particularly for the English. Land treaties between one tribe and colonists were not recognized by other tribes, so colonists exploited this disunity, affecting a divide and conquer approach to gradually acquire their lands. Conflicts between colonial farmers and tribal interests fueled Native American resentment. The Algonquin, Lenape, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Shawnee tribes sided with the French, and the Iroquois Confederacy sided with the British.

Native American InvolvementNo formar grandes alianzasLuchado entre ellos-Colonos americanos genial Amenazaconflictos Tratado-Aliados franceses: Algonquin, Lenape, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Ottawa, ShawneeBritnico aliado: Confederacin Iroquois

21Native Americans fought against each other as often as they attacked the settlers. The conflict amongst Native Americans made war more complex but helped speed up colonial expansion, particularly for the English. Land treaties between one tribe and colonists were not recognized by other tribes, so colonists exploited this disunity, affecting a divide and conquer approach to gradually acquire their lands. Conflicts between colonial farmers and tribal interests fueled Native American resentment. The Algonquin, Lenape, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Shawnee tribes sided with the French, and the Iroquois Confederacy sided with the British.

Commercial Interests: BeaversBeaver pelts sold in Europe at 20 timesNew World costLarge tradingcompanies madefortunesFrench and English tried unsuccessfully to control the tradeEnglish trade goods preferred by Native Americans

22How much trouble could a semi-aquatic rodent cause? Surprisingly, a lot. Beavers were a hot commodity leading up to the French and Indian War, and the fur trade was booming. Fur trappers worked hard to catch beavers, which are not farmable animals. Trappers were burly, crackle-skinned frontiersmen, who spent months in the wilderness, enduring extreme cold, snow, and icy conditions to make a living. Fur was very popular. Felt hats were also very popular. Felt hats were made from fur that was processed by plucking the hair, then brushed with a mercury solution. Fur trappers and traders were making so much money that the government decided to step in. The French and British created laws and rules for trading fur and put a tax on the fur trade. Fur trappers and traders despised the government for interfering and ignored the new rules. They simply sold furs to the highest bidder. Native Americans also tried to control the fur trade in their own areas. They got along with the traders, as long as the trades were conducted fairly.

Commercial Interests: BeaversPieles de castor venden en? Europa en 20 veces? Nuevo coste MundialLas grandes empresas comerciales? Fortunas hechas?Francs e Ingls? Intentaron sin xito? Para controlar el comercioProductos de comercio ingls? Preferidos por los nativos americanos?23How much trouble could a semi-aquatic rodent cause? Surprisingly, a lot. Beavers were a hot commodity leading up to the French and Indian War, and the fur trade was booming. Fur trappers worked hard to catch beavers, which are not farmable animals. Trappers were burly, crackle-skinned frontiersmen, who spent months in the wilderness, enduring extreme cold, snow, and icy conditions to make a living. Fur was very popular. Felt hats were also very popular. Felt hats were made from fur that was processed by plucking the hair, then brushed with a mercury solution. Fur trappers and traders were making so much money that the government decided to step in. The French and British created laws and rules for trading fur and put a tax on the fur trade. Fur trappers and traders despised the government for interfering and ignored the new rules. They simply sold furs to the highest bidder. Native Americans also tried to control the fur trade in their own areas. They got along with the traders, as long as the trades were conducted fairly.

Commercial Interests: FishingGrand Banks one of best fishing spots Located off the coastof Newfoundland near New FranceFished since thearrival of the Portuguese in the 15th Century

24Newfoundlands Grand Banks was and still is one of the most productive fisheries in the world. These underwater plateaus on the edge of the American continental shelf have been a preferred fishing spot since the Portuguese and Basque began harvesting the area in the early 15th Century. Italian explorer John Cabot made the area even more popular after exploring the waters in 1497. Cabot reported that the codfish were so thick he could scoop them in baskets. From then on, fishing boats from all over the world have frequented these storm-tossed waters. Both France and Britain wanted to control the Grand Banks.Commercial Interests: FishingGrand Banks, uno de los mejores lugares de pesca-Situado frente a la costa De Terranova Cerca de Nueva Francia-Pesca desde el Llegada del Portuguesa en? El siglo 1525Newfoundlands Grand Banks was and still is one of the most productive fisheries in the world. These underwater plateaus on the edge of the American continental shelf have been a preferred fishing spot since the Portuguese and Basque began harvesting the area in the early 15th Century. Italian explorer John Cabot made the area even more popular after exploring the waters in 1497. Cabot reported that the codfish were so thick he could scoop them in baskets. From then on, fishing boats from all over the world have frequented these storm-tossed waters. Both France and Britain wanted to control the Grand Banks.

Arial view of the North Atlantic Ocean. Newfoundland located west of the Atlantic. France and England (United Kingdom) east of the Atlantic Ocean. Tensions from Past WarsYearNorth American WarEuropean WarResult1689 1697King William's War1st Intercolonial War (in Quebec)War of the Grand AllianceWar of the League of AugsburgTreaty of Ryswick (1697)1702 1713Queen Anne's War2nd Intercolonial WarWar of the Spanish Succession (1701 1714)Treaty of Utrecht (1713)1744 1748King George's War3rd Intercolonial WarWar of the Austrian SuccessionWar of Jenkins' Ear (1740 1748)Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)1754 1763French and Indian War4th Intercolonial WarSeven Years' War (1756 1763)Treaty of Paris (1763)27Can a war really last 100 years? For England and France, four wars took place during a span of more than 100 years, and the French and Indian War was the last. All the wars in North America coincided with wars fought in or around Europe. The British won the first three wars, but France never lost its North American colonies until the end of the French and Indian War. Look at the chart on this slide for more information about the Second Hundred Years War.Tensions from Past WarsYearNorth American WarEuropean WarResult1689 1697King William's War1st Intercolonial War (in Quebec)War of the Grand AllianceWar of the League of AugsburgTreaty of Ryswick (1697)1702 1713Queen Anne's War2nd Intercolonial WarWar of the Spanish Succession (1701 1714)Treaty of Utrecht (1713)1744 1748King George's War3rd Intercolonial WarWar of the Austrian SuccessionWar of Jenkins' Ear (1740 1748)Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)1754 1763French and Indian War4th Intercolonial WarSeven Years' War (1756 1763)Treaty of Paris (1763)28Can a war really last 100 years? For England and France, four wars took place during a span of more than 100 years, and the French and Indian War was the last. All the wars in North America coincided with wars fought in or around Europe. The British won the first three wars, but France never lost its North American colonies until the end of the French and Indian War. Look at the chart on this slide for more information about the Second Hundred Years War.What was Life Like in 1750?Life expectancy: 30 in South, 40 in NorthCholera, Small Pox, Yellow Fever, and Malaria killed thousands(mostly children)500,000 slaves worked on plantations in the South Medical treatmentnon-existent,primitive

29Your life would be half over today if you lived in 1750. To say that life was hard in the mid-1750s would be an understatement. Many children did not reach their fifth birthday, and sickness wiped out entire regions. Native Americans had no resistance to European diseases, and colonials had no resistance to American diseases. Medical care was primitive at bestdoctors had no anesthesia or antibiotics. If you lived to be 40, you might make it into old age, if you were lucky. Life expectancy was age 30 in the South and age 40 in the North. A black persons lot was particularly hard because of slavery. A few freed blacks lived in the North, but for the half a million slaves in the South, life was very difficult.Critical thinking question: What would be the treatment for a serious foot infection in those days?

What was Life Like in 1750?Esperanza de vida: 30 en el sur, 40 en el norte de-El clera, la viruela, la fiebre amarilla y la malaria Miles de muertos (La mayora nios)-500.000 esclavos trabajaron en Plantaciones en el Sur-El tratamiento mdico Inexistente, Primitiva30Your life would be half over today if you lived in 1750. To say that life was hard in the mid-1750s would be an understatement. Many children did not reach their fifth birthday, and sickness wiped out entire regions. Native Americans had no resistance to European diseases, and colonials had no resistance to American diseases. Medical care was primitive at bestdoctors had no anesthesia or antibiotics. If you lived to be 40, you might make it into old age, if you were lucky. Life expectancy was age 30 in the South and age 40 in the North. A black persons lot was particularly hard because of slavery. A few freed blacks lived in the North, but for the half a million slaves in the South, life was very difficult.Critical thinking question: What would be the treatment for a serious foot infection in those days?

The Combatants: RegularsCavalry and cannon often attached to regular regiments British - best regular army Lead by career officers Beat militia onopen battlefieldsBritain fielded20,000 regulars, France around6,000

31The British had the best army in the world. France could only send a limited amount of regular troops to North America because they were still fighting the Seven Years War back in Europe. Regular troops were professional soldiers led by career officers. Well-trained infantry regiments required 18-months of drilling. Companies of specialized troops, such as cavalry scouts and batteries of horse-drawn field cannon, often supplemented the regulars. On the open battlefield, a professional army could only be defeated through maneuver or overwhelming numbers. Even a large contingent of militia and irregulars would be outclassed by a regular army.Temporary soldierswho formed a reserveNormally used in a defensive roll inside their home territoriesDrafted, paid, and under command of states35,000 participatedOfficers elected or politically appointed by statesThe Combatants: MilitiasGeorgeWashingtona British-trained Militia Officer

32Future President George Washington was a British-trained militia officer. Since militiamen were part-time soldiers, they were ordinary, everyday men, such as farmers. Each state had its own militia. The states drafted, paid, and controlled their militias, so they were reluctant to lend them for conflicts outside state boundaries. Only about 35,000 militia participated in the French and Indian War, but they often made up the bulk of the forces. Officered by elected or appointed locals, militias could hold their own against irregularsespecially Native Americans, with whom they had extensive combat experience. Militias fought best when defending their local communities. However, they lacked the discipline to win in the open battlefield against well-ordered ranks of professional soldiers. Militias, although raised in great numbers, rarely decided the fate of battles and were used mostly as a local reserve force.The Combatants: IrregularsSpecialized in ambush and sniping Independent, loyal only to their leaders Tough fightersUsed as scoutsRogers Rangers and Native Americans best examples

33Irregulars worked hard behind enemy lines, stirring up as much trouble as possible. These colonial frontiersmen and Native Americans did the dirty work and were often responsible for massacres designed to strike fear into the enemy. They attacked supply columns, shot enemy officers and collaborators, and carried out reconnaissance missions. Irregulars provided important information to commanders as to the whereabouts, strength and objectives of enemy forces. In larger battles, they kept to the edges where they could pick-off opposing officers and protect the armys flanks from enemy attacks. One of the most well known irregular units was Rogers Rangers, which included both Colonials and Native Americans. Irregulars often did a lot of damage to the enemy but were not able to inflict decisive defeats on larger formations of militias or regulars.34

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Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) was located at the convergence of three major rivers, the Ohio, the Allegheny, and the Monongahela. Long seen by both the French and British as the key to the rich farmlands and settlement opportunities in the Ohio River Valley, both France and England laid claim to the area. When the British found that the fort had been built, a young officer by the name of George Washington was dispatched to warn the French to get out of the area.Duquesne was claimed by the French and the British 3536

George Washington, a 22 year old militia officer, was sent by the British to deliver the ultimatum to the French. Washington constructed an outpost approximately 60 miles from Duquesne called Fort NecessityFort Necessity

3637Attack at Jumonville Glen

"I fortunately escaped without any wound, for the right wing, where I stood, was exposed to and received all the enemy's fire, and it was the part where the man was killed, and the rest wounded. I heard the bullets whistle, and, believe me there is something charming in the sound." --George Washington The first skirmish between the French and Washingtons men took place not far from the fort. Washington and Indian allies attacked a French position at a location known as Jumonville Glen. Within a few minutes, 10 Frenchmen were killed and 21 wounded. A few days later the French retaliated against Washingtons position, and Washington surrendered Fort Necessity. Washington became embroiled in controversy because the surrender document written by an interpreter incorrectly deemed the French diplomats instead of combatants, making Washington a murderer. 37Whether Washington and his men premeditated an attack against the French position at Jumonville Glen is still debated. However, as Washington and his Indian allies approached the French encampment, shots rang out, and the British opened fire. Within a few minutes, 10 of the French detachment were killed, and 21 were wounded. In one instance, one of Washingtons Indian allies tomahawked a French soldier, and allegedly washed his hands in the mans brain.A few days later, the French counterattacked, and Washington was forced to surrender Fort Necessity. In the surrender document, however, Washington made a startling admission, simply because his interpreter misread the document. According to the surrender document, the French soldiers at Jumonville Glen were not combatants, but actually diplomats. In attacking and killing some of them, Washington admitted assassinating a French diplomat, in essence, he admitted to committing a murder.

The Battles continuedBattle of the Great Meadows July 3, 1754 Known as the Battle of Fort NecessityWashington constructs a weak fort near French Fort DuquesneTanaghrisson and his Native Americans abandon Washington Captain de Villiers leads 700 to defeat Washington's 300 in a short siegesingle click speaker to hear audio clip >>>>>

38When Washington arrived to build a fort in the area, the French had arrived first and chose the best spot: Fort Duquesne. Washington picked an open meadow nearby for Fort Necessity. Misjudging the distance to a tree line on higher ground put the interior of the fort within enemy musket range. Chief Tanaghrisson recognized this blunder and refused to defend Fort Necessity. He retreated with his warriors. Even though Washington was later reinforced by 100 British regulars under Captain Mackay, it was not enough to defeat the enraged brother of Ensign Jumonville, Captain Louis Coulon de Villiers. His larger force hid in the tree line and fired down into the fort, forcing Washington to surrender. This was to be the only surrender of George Washington's career. He was later released with all but two of his soldiers. These two soldiers were held as hostages against Washingtons return.Critical thinking question: Washington made a stupid mistake. Are great leaders great all the time?39

The next year in 1755, British General Edward Braddock was ordered to attack the French stronghold at Fort Duquesne. Assigned as his aide was George Washington. Braddock and his 1500 men were confident they could take the fort, but they were ambushed outside the gates by French soldiers and their Native American allies. During the battle, Braddock and his staff were killed with the exception of Washington. The British defeat at Fort Duquesne was only the first of many losses suffered during the period of 1755-1756.British attack on Fort Duquesne39Braddock and his men had no clue on how to effectively fight the French and Indians at Fort Duquesne. Used to fighting an army which assembled in a straight line on the opposite end of the battlefield, they turned and ran when faced with the guerilla tactics the French employed. Washington was the only one of Braddocks staff of officers who survived the attack, after having two horses shot out from underneath him and four bullets pass through his coat. As the British lost battle after battle, it became obvious that some sort of change was needed if the British hoped to win the war and maintain their empire.40

The French were initially victorious over the British military. However this changed dramatically when King George III picked new leaders to run the British government.William Pitt, as prime minister, put together a massive army of 50,000 men to fight the French, but had to borrow a large amount of money to do so.Prime Minister William Pitt40Stunned by several defeats at the hands of the French, King George II decided to shake up his government in order to change British fortunes. One of the new leaders the King selected was William Pitt as prime minister, who boasted, I know I can save this country and no one else can.Pitt put together a massive army of over 50,000 troops, one of the worlds biggest armies to that point. However, in doing so, he also amassed a huge debt. While the British began to pile up victories against the French, British debt began to pile up as well.

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Battle of Quebec

Wolfe (British)Montcalm (French)The commanders4142 The battle was fought outside the city of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham Wolfe had 4800 men under his command, Montcalm, 4000 Wolfes men scaled cliffs protecting the city and surprised Montcalm. Montcalm could have evacuated the city, but elected instead to fight Wolfes men British losses in the battle were 58 killed, 600 wounded French losses were 644 men killed or wounded Both Wolfe and Montcalm were killed in the battle Battle ended in a decisive British victoryThe Battle of Quebec4243

The British victory caused the French to surrenderBenjamin West painted this portrait of the death of Wolfe43Benjamin West painted this portrait of General James Wolfe, mortally wounded at Quebec, surrounded by British officers and Indian allies. Both Wolfe, and French General Marquis de Montcalm, were killed in the battle, which resulted in a British victory and French surrender in the French and Indian War.44 Ended the French and Indian War France ceded Canada and all land claims east of the Mississippi River to England France kept the island colony of Guadeloupe Spain received Louisiana and New Orleans from the French, Cuba was restored to Spain Spain temporarily ceded Florida to the BritishTreaty of Paris 1763

4445 France lost most of its overseas empire The size of British holdings in North America doubled with the acquisition of Canada and territory to the Mississippi River The British treasury went deep into debt to pay expenses for the war. Eventually they tried to pay for much of the expense of the war by taxing the Thirteen Colonies, which led to the American Revolution The French sought ways to maintain the balance of power in Europe by undermining Britains power whenever possible. This led them later to support the colonists in the American Revolution While the British saw their empire grow substantially, they also found that it became increasingly difficult to manage such a large territorial area Britain became the dominant world power at that timeImpact of the war4546Pontiacs Rebellion 1763-1766

Various Indian tribes, concerned with the number of British soldiers entering the Ohio River valley region, united behind Ottawa Chief Pontiac in an attempt to reclaim lands for Native Americans.Indians were successful in capturing eight British forts, but were weakened when British officers gave them smallpox-infected blankets during peace negotiations. They eventually entered into treaties with the British, and gave up control of the lands theyd taken.4647Faced with a difficult task of guarding an expansive empire in the New World, King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763, which restricted settlement to the east of a line drawn at the Appalachian Mountains.The Proclamation also sought to stop the exploitative sale of Indian land. The purpose of the Proclamation was to forestall further frontier warfare after Pontiacs Rebellion. Proclamation of 1763

47The result of the Proclamation Line was two-fold. Settlers were angry that the new lands the British government had acquired were closed to settlement. They had wanted those lands to expand their farms and also to sell as land speculators. In addition, the Proclamation actually diminished British authority. The Proclamation was completely unenforceable, and colonists continued to take over Indian lands against the wishes of the British Government.

Albany Plan of Union The Albany Plan of Union, proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson, called for colonial unity in the face of the coming war with France.

None of the colonies approved the plan out of fear of losing power. The Albany Plan of Union called for a Grand Council with representatives from each colony. The Grand Council would:- make laws- raise taxes- defend the colonies* The Albany Plan of Union set an example that would later be followed by such gatherings as the First and Second Continental Congress. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763, ending the war. Spain gave up Florida to Britain.French and Indian War: EffectsThe Treaty of Paris Britain gained Canada and all of the French land east of the Mississippi River. Spain gained all of the French land west of the Mississippi River.

Prior to the French and Indian WarAfter the French and Indian War

The Battles continuedBraddock's Campaign Begins May 29, 1755Braddock tries to capture Fort Duquesne Benjamin Franklin provideslogistics helpGeorge Washington acts as Aide-de-Camp to BraddockThomas Gage participates Later Governor of Montreal and leader of British in 1776

53Major General George Braddock is forced to build a new road to move the huge supply train and heavy cannon needed against the French forts. He makes slow progress. Washington, ignoring the treaty he signed with the French promising not to return, joins the expedition as Braddocks adviser. The Native Americans in the area with the exception of 6 Mingos refuse to help. They are waiting to see who will be the victor in the coming battle before choosing sides. Many future frontier and revolutionary heroes get their start on this campaign: Daniel Boone, the famous frontiersman of Kentucky, and Daniel Morgan, who later defeats the much hated Banastre Tarleton in the Revolutionary War. Thomas Gage, future Governor of Montreal and leader of British forces during the Revolutionary War, leads Braddocks advance force. The future Colonial generals, Charles Lee and Horatio Gates, get their start as young British officers.Aftermath of WarEngland now largestcolonial empire in the worldThe Colonists are independence minded under British ruleNorth America most prosperous area on earthThe French still continue to inhabit areas around Quebec and Montreal

55England now had the largest colonial empire in the world. From the east coast to the Mississippi of America, Canada, India, Caribbean Islands, and outposts in Africa. This empire, however, was soon to be greatly reduced by the Revolutionary War. Men like George Washington and Daniel Morgan could see just how easy it would be to evict the British and resented the inferior status accorded them by English Parliament. In fact, the North American colonies had begun to outstrip England they had more universities, large and active ports on the eastern seaboard, a prosperous population of 1.2 million and the start of an industrial base that would soon make them self-sufficient. Quebec had a small Francophone population intensely proud of its roots. British having won the war changed nothing for them and they continued to deal commercially with France and speak French.Casualties and Cost of the WarBritain raised taxes which led to Revolution in 1776Pensions paid to war widows and disabled until late 1880sWar refugees frequently died from exposure

56Casualties are defined as those who are unable to fight either dead or seriously wounded. War is one of societies most costly occupations both in lives and money. Britain, bankrupted by the wars, was forced to raise taxes which ultimately helped provoke the Revolutionary War. While relatively few died in actual battles, the social disruption probably killed twice as many more. Life as a refugee especially in Northern climes could be just as deadly as a bayonet thrust. Native Americans also suffered extensively, but their true losses will never be known. The U.S. government and states paid pensions to war widows and the disabled, up until the late 1880s.Albany Plan of Union The Albany Plan of Union, proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson, called for colonial unity in the face of the coming war with France.

None of the colonies approved the plan out of fear of losing power. The Albany Plan of Union called for a Grand Council with representatives from each colony. The Grand Council would:- make laws- raise taxes- defend the colonies* The Albany Plan of Union set an example that would later be followed by such gatherings as the First and Second Continental Congress.

The French and Indian War Cause EffectEngland and France break off diplomatic relations. England goes into debt. England wins the war.England and France fight over ownership of land in North America.England forces colonists to pay taxes. France and Native Americans become allies. France gives up rights to land in North America.