BAB 5 - Consumer Behaviour Consumer Banking

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Transcript of BAB 5 - Consumer Behaviour Consumer Banking

TOPIC 5

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND CONSUMER BANKING

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5.1 The Study of Consumer Behaviour The study of consumer behaviour is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their valuable resources, such as time, money and effort, on consumption related items. Beyond the facets of how and why decisions, marketing researchers also consider the uses consumers make of the goods they buy and their subsequent evaluations. Thus, consumer behaviour refers to the behaviour that consumers display in searching for purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will 2 SATISFY THEIR NEEDS.

PEMBAHAGIAN PASARANPembhgian Pasaran adalah merupakan langkah pertama dlm membuat pemasaran pasaran. Kotler & Armstrong (1996) Merupakan satu proses membahagian pasaran yg besar & mpyi pelbagai keperluan, ciri & gelagat kpd pasaran yg lebih kecil, yg mana individu2 di dlm setiap segmen mpyi keperluan, kehendak & gelagat pembelian yg sama.3

PROSES PEMBAHAGIAN PASARAN

SEGMEN 1

PASARAN

PEMBAHAGIAN PASARAN

SEGMEN B

SEGMEN C

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5.2 Market Segments In developing a marketing strategy for financial services, a bank must determine their target in a product market to whom it will direct its marketing efforts. This is known as market segmentation; one of two pillars of marketing, in addition to positioning.

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TUJUAN ASAS SEGMENTASI ADALAH UTK MEMBAHAGIKAN SESUATU POPULASI KPD KUMPULAN2 YG BERLAINAN DI MANA INDIVIDU2 DALAM SETIAP KUMPULAN ITU MPYI KEPERLUAN YANG SERUPA. UNTUK MENSEGMENTASIKAN PASARAN, BERBAGAI ASAS/PEMBOLEHUBAH DIGUNAKAN. ANTARANYA ASAS YG DIGUNAKAN IALAH I) DEMOGRAFI ii) GEOGRAFI, iii) PSIKOGRAFI & Iv) GELAGAT.

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Buyers of bank services have unique needs and wants, and each buyer is potentially a separate market. Banks would do well trying different segmentation bases, alone or in combination, to find the best way to identify a market structure. This is better known as CUSTOMER PROFILING.

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5.2.1 Demographic Demographic segmentation divides the market into groups based on variables such: religion, race and age, nationality gender, Education family size, income, occupation,This list is not exhaustive as other variables may from time to time be adopted as a segmentation variable. 8

DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ARE POPULAR for segmenting customer groups as the variables are easier to measure than other types of variables. The demographic characteristics are also commonly used in conjunction with other segmentation bases to assess the size and potential of the target market and to reach it efficiently.

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Maklumat demografi penting diketahui sebelum asas2 segmentasi yang lain boleh digunakan secara efektif dalam membuat penilaian saiz pasaran Segmentasi demografi sangat penting/popular kerana keperluan pengguna berubah mengikut perubahan ciri2 demografinya.10

5.2.2 Geographic Geographic segmentation divides the market into different geographic regions such as States (kedah,perlis,penang,perak, etc) Regions (NR,SR,ER & WR) Cities (Asetar,Kangar,Spetani,Ipoh,Kelang) Countries (Msia,Thailand,Indonesia).

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The bank may decide to focus on a few, paying attention to the distinguishing characteristics associated with each location. The needs of urban customers would differ significant from that of rural dwellers. Kws majoriti penduduk melayu, bank will embarks on ASB loan, chinese bank tumpu pada saving/fixed deposit. Kws indusri bank will fokus on commercial loan. Kws urban-Pinj. Perumahan Kws luar bandar/pendalaman-Pinj. Kredit mikro12

E.g. Pasaraya borong Carrefour telah membuka cawangannya di bandar2 utama seluruh Malaysia. E.g.Pizza Hut di Malaysia memperkenalkan pizza yg halal & bercita rasa tempatan seperti pizza berperisa sate sbgi salah satu daya tarikan produknya & tdk menawarkan pepperoni pizza (tidak halal) seperti yg dilakukan di Amerika BSN membuka cawangan hampir di seluruh pelusuk negeri di Malaysia dibandar & diluar bandar.13

5.2.3 Psychographic Psychographic segmentation divides the market into groups based on their social class (kedudukan dlm masyarakat), lifestyle (gaya hidup)or personality characteristics (perwatakan). . Faktor psikografi dikatakan boleh membuat perbezaan demografi menjadi tidak penting, kerana pengguna dlm demografi yg sama selalunya mempunyai psikografi yg berbeza.14

Contoh: suri rumah berusia 30 tahun (Age) dari kelas atasan lebih cenderung membeli barangan keperluan di pasar raya, manakala suri rumah berusia 30 tahun (Age)dari kelas bawahan pula lebih gemar membeli keperluan hariannya di kedai runcit atau di pasar basah. Contoh: Golongan tua lebih gemar menjlnkan transaksi perbankan di kaunter (tradisional method) berbanding golongan muda (teknologi oriented) Cth: golongan muda suka motor berbentuk sporty Yamaha Rx-Z , tua Honda ex-5. Muda-stria neo,honda jazz, Tua-Waja/Volvo

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Tdpt beberapa pemboleh ubah yg boleh digunakan pemasar utk mensegmenkan pasaran menggunakan asas psikografi iaitu: 1) Kelas sosial cth: masyarakt kelas atasan memilih kws eksklusif bagi pembelian rumah, perabut import & kereta mewah. Sebaliknya masyarakat kelas bawahan hanya akan membeli rumah murah, perabut tempatan yg lebih murah & kereta biasa.16

2)Gaya/corak hidup- cth: seseorg yg pentingkan kesihatannya tdk akan keberatan utk membelanjakan pendapatannya utk membeli vitamin, barangan herba & sbginya. Sebaliknya seseorg yg tdk mementingkan kesihatan lebih rela membelanjakan wangnya utk keperluan lain drp membeli pil2 kesihatan. (kos tinggi & mahal!)17

3)Personaliti- sering digunakan di dlm membuat segmentasi bagi produk kosmetik & pakaian. Cth: pengguna yg bersifat agresif sering dianggap berkeinginan utk mencuba sesuatu yg baru & luar biasa. Oleh itu rekaan kosmetik bewarna terang & pakaian yg unik biasanya diperkenalkan utk pengguna jenis ini.18

5.2.4 Behavioural (Segmentasi menggunakan asas gelagat) A similar segmentation base, behavioural, categorised the market based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses or responses to a product Life cycle marketing focuses on the idea that a consumer at each different stages of life will have different buying behaviour that can be influenced by his/her social class and lifestyle.19

Consumers use products to express their social identities. Credit card-exclusive image. Ferari,merz vs toyota. The use of symbols provides a powerful means for marketers to convey product attributes to consumers. For example, expensive cars, designer fashions and diamond jewellery - all widely recognised symbols of success - frequently appear in advertisements to associate products with affluence or sophistication. Executive loan offer by Maybank. Reflect status/symbol elite. Gold card-reflect exclusive 20 member!

contd Pemasar selalunya menggunakan pembolehubah dalam asas gelagat seperti situasi penggunaan, faedah dicari, status pengguna, kesetiaan, peringkat kesediaan untuk membeli, dan sikap dalam usaha mentakrifkan segmen2 yang wujud dalam pasaran

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Contd. 1) Situasi penggunaan-contohnya masyarakat Jepun yg menggunakan the bukan sekadar untuk minum pagi atau petang tetapi sebagai sebahagian daripada upacara keramaian & menyambut tetamu mereka. 2) Faedah dicari- contohnya membeli ubat gigi Colgate dengan extra pudina ialah untuk kesegaran mulut, dan membeli kereta Perodua Kancil kerana penggunaan minyaknya yang lebih ekonomi berbanding dengan kereta2 lain 3) Status pengguna-pasaran boleh dibahagikan kpd bukan pengguna, pengguna berpontensi, pengguna pertama kali dan pengguna biasa.22

Contohnya utk mengalakkan penduduk Msia supaya melabur dlm Amanah Saham Wawasan 2020, kerajaan telah menjlnkan kempen yang berbeza iaitu kpd kump. yg tlh melabur, golongan yg berpotensi utk melabur, dan golongan yg belum melabur. Selalunya syarikat2 kecil akan menumpukan usaha pemasarannya ke atas pengguna sedia ada supaya pengguna tdk mudah berpaling kpd keluaran sykt lain. Ini kerana mengekalkan minat pengguna sedia ada adalah lebih mudah daripada menarik minat pelanggan baru (Kotler 1996)23

5.2.4 Psychographic/Demographic Psychographic/Demographic profiling is particularly useful in creating customer profiles for service marketers. It provides a meaningful insight for segmenting mass markets, providing direction as to which promotional appeals to use, and selecting advertising media that is most likely to reach the target market.24

5.2.5 Geo-demographic This segmentation scheme is based on the notion that people living close to one another are likely to have similar financial means, tastes, preferences, lifestyles and consumption habits. This technique is useful when potential prospects can be isolated in terms of where they live. Mumbai-india Damasara-kl Bukit indah -jitra25

5.3 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow's hierarchy seeks to explain why people are driven by particular needs at a particular time of their lives. His answer is that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy, from the most important to the least important. In order of importance, they are : physiological needs, safety needs, social needs and Esteem needs 26 self-actualisation needs

Figure 5.1 - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Source: Marketing, 4th ed., by Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, 1997. Prentice Hall.

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5.4 Segment Characteristics in Banking In consumer banking or corporate banking, the banks target the segment that adheres to the common characteristics that typify an "ACE" customer. These customers are likely to be Asset-Rich (the ability to pay), Credit-worthy (the willingness to pay), and Exclusivity (possess the desire for exclusivity).