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    S.No. Course


    Subject Periods Evaluation Scheme

    Subject Total Sessional Exam

    Theory L T P CT TA Total ESE

    1. BT-701 Environmental

    Biotechnology 03 01 00 30 20 50 100 150

    2. BT-702 Fermentation

    Engineering 03 01 00 30 20 50 100 150

    3. BT-703 Bioinformatics-III 03 01 00 30 20 50 100 150

    4. BT-704 Nanobiotechnology 03 01 00 30 20 50 100 150

    5. BT-705

    Open Elective-I

    E-1. Agriculture


    E-2. Food


    E-3. Pharmaceutical


    03 01 00 30 20 50 100 150

    6. BT-706

    Open Elective-II

    E-1. Bioenergetics

    and Metabolic


    E-2. Medical


    E-3. Animal


    2 1 0 15 10 25 75 100

    Practical’s/ Design/ Drawing

    6. BT-751 Environmental

    Biotechnology Lab 0 0 03 10 10 20 30 50

    7. BT-752


    Engineering Lab

    0 0 06 20 20 40 60 100

    8. BT-753 Bioinformatics


    0 0 03 10 10 20 30 50

    9. GP-701 General Proficiency 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 50

    Total 17 06 12 205 150 405 695 1100

  • B. TECH.




    BT-701 L T P

    3 1 0

    Unit I [8]

    Ecology and environment: The atmosphere, Ecosystems, Energy transfer,

    Introduction to air, water, soil and noise pollution, their sources and control.

    Global environmental issues.

    Unit II [8]

    Classification and Characterization of Solid Waste: Management and

    treatment of solid waste. Thermal and biological processes.


    Unit III [8]

    Structural and Functional dynamics of microbes: diversity, activity and

    growth, community profiling, biosensors, bioreporters, Microchips.

    Methanogenesis: methonogenic, acetogenic and fermentive bacteria-

    technical processes and conditions.

    Unit IV [8]

    Waste treatment methods, with advanced bioreactor configuration: activated

    sludge process, trickling filter, fluidized expanded bed reactor, upflow

    anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, contact process, fixed/packed bed reactor,

    hybrid reactors, sequential batch reactors.

    Unit V [8]

    Process strategies for bioremediation through microbes and plants.

    exploiting microbial metabolism for bioremediation of organic

    contaminants, heavy metals and nitrogenous wastes.

    Biofuels: Energy crops, biogas, bioethanol and biohydrogen.

    Books Recommended:

    1. J. Winter-Environmental Processes I-III, 2nd ed, Wiley Publications 2. Metcalf & Fuddy –Waste Water Engineering , 3rd ed , TMH publications. 3. P.D. Sharma – Ecology & Environment, 8th ed. 4. R.S. Ramalho – Introduction to Waste water treatment, Academic Press.



    L T P

    3 1 0

    Unit I [8]

    Fermentative production of organic acids: Acetic acid; Fermentative

    production of enzymes: Proteases and amylases; Fermentative production of

    antibiotics: penicillin, streptomycin; Fermentative production organic

    solvent: ethanol.

    Unit II [8]

    Heterogeneous reaction systems: Zero order and First order kinetics of

    concentration profile with reference to spherical geometry and other shapes,

    Effectiveness factor, External and internal mass transfer, General comments

    on heterogeneous reactions in bioprocessing.

    Unit III [8]

    Downstream Processing: Filtration batch and continuous, Centrifugation

    batch and continuous; Product Isolation: liquid liquid Extraction, and

    Reverse osmosi.

    Cell disruption: Physical, chemical methods

    Unit IV [8]

    Purification methods: Fractional precipitation, electrophoresis,

    chromatography, adsorption, crystallization and drying; Dialysis,

    Electrodialysis; Lyophilization.

    Unit V [8]

    Scale-up of microbial bioreactors: Various approaches to scale-up including

    regime analysis and scale-down; Scale-up by rules-of-tIHUmb viz. constant

    P/V, KLa etc. Problems associated with scale-up.

    Books recommended:

    1. McCabe WL, Smith JC, Harriot P, "Unit operations of Chemical

  • Engineering", McGraw-Hill.

    2. Cussler EL, "Diffusion", Cambridge University Press.

    3. Pauline M, "Bioprocess Engineering Principles".

    4. Bailey JE, Ollis DF, "Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals",


    5. Stanbury PF, Whitaker A, "Principles of Fermentation Technology",

    Pergamon press.

    6. Principles of Cell Energetics, BIOTOL series, Butterworth -


    7. Moser A, "Bioprocess Technology - Kinetics & Reactors", Springer-


    8. ScIHUgerl K, "Biotechnology" Vol.4: Meaning Modeling and

    Control, VCH.

    9. Atkinson B, Mavituna F, "Biochemical Engineering and

    Biotechnology Handbook", Stockton Press.

    10. Aiba S, IHUmphrey AE, “Biochemical Engineering”, University of

    Tokyo Press.

    11. Moo-Young M, “Comprehensive Biotechnology”.

    12. Cruger, Cruger, “Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial


    13. Prescott, Dunn, “Industrial Microbiology”.

    14. Rittman B, McCarty PL, “Environmental Biotechnology: Principles

    and Applications”.



    L T P

    3 1 0

    Unit I [8]

    Protein classification: Structural elements and terminology- phi & psi bonds,

    Letter code for amino acids, Helix, Sheet, Strand, Loop and coil, Active site,

    Architecture, Blocks, Classes and Domains, Fold, Motif, PSSM, Profile.

    CATH – Classification by Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology, SCOP

    – Structural Classification of Protein, FSSP – Fold classification based on

    structure – structure alignment, MMDB – Molecular Modeling Database.

    Unit II [8]

    Methods of Secondary structure prediction: Chou – Fasman / GOR method.

    Methods for Prediction of Tertiary structures of Proteins

    Knowledge-based structure prediction

    Fold recognition

    Ab initio methods for structure prediction Unit III [8]

    Microarray data Analysis; Exploring the microarray data set, Spatial images

    of microarray data, Statistics of the microarrays, Scatter plots of microarray

    data; Exploring the data Set, Filtering the genes, Cluster analysis, Principal

    component analysis (PCA), Self-Organizing Maps (SOM).

    Unit IV [8]

    In-silico gene identification; Gene finding: Gene finding in prokaryotes and

    eukaryotes. GENSCAN algorithm and its performance; VIEL (Viterbi Intron

    Exon Locator) program.

    Unit V [8]

    Phylogenetic analysis; Introduction to phylogenetics and phylogenetic trees;

    Reconstruction of Phylogenetic trees: Character based methods: Parsimony:

    small parsimony (Fitch‟s Algorithm), weighted parsimony (Sankoff‟s

    Algorithm) and Large parsimony problems and Compatibility; Distance

    based methods: Jukes Cantor model.

    Books recommended:

    1. DW Mount ”Bioinformatics: Sequence and genome analysis”.

    2. Bruce EN “Biomedical signal processing and signal modeling”

    3. Sharma S “Signal and System”.

    4. Nawab SH “Signal and System”.

  • 5. Stekel „Microarray Bioinformatics‟, Cambridge Press. 6. Salzberg SL et al. „Computational Methods in Biotechnology‟,

    Elsevier Science.

    7. Evens and Grants „Statistical Methods in Bioinformatics‟, Springer-Verlag, NY.

    8. Stemberg MJE „Protein Structure Prediction-A Practical Approach‟, Oxford University Press.

    9. Setubal and Meidanis ‟Computational Molecular Biology‟, PWS Publishing Co.



    L T P

    3 1 0

    Unit I


    Introduction: Introduction to nanotechnology and overview of nanoscale

    materials, effect of length scale on properties, introduction to

    bionanotechnology, challenges and opportunities associated with biology on

    the Nanoscale, bionanotechnology systems, biological and medical

    applications of Bionanomaterials.

    Unit II


    Nanomaterials: Introduction to nanomaterials, General surface and colloid

    chemistry, principles, experimental techniques, surface potential, DVLO

    theory; Characteristics of nanoparticles, chemical speciation of dissolved

    species, Environmental behaviour of nanoparticles, biological activity of


    Unit III


    Biosensors: Introduction to biosensors, the biological component, the sensor

    surface, Immobilization of the sensor molecule, Transduction of the sensor

    signal: Optical, Electrochemical and Mechanical sensors, Sensor

    stabilization, Basics of Amperometric sensors; Potentiometric sensors;

    Optical sensors; Optical waveguide sensors; Surface Plasmon Resonance

    sensors; Resonant Mirror sensors; Capillary Fill devices; Electro-mechanical


    Unit IV


    Biophotonics and Bioimaging: Overview of imaging biological systems,

    from the cellular level through to whole-body medical imaging, Introduction

    to biophysics, basic physical concepts in imaging, Major techniques using

    ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: fluorescence and multi-photon

    microscopy, spectroscopy, OCT, MRI, X-ray CT, PET and SPECT imaging.

  • Unit V


    Nanotoxicology: Principles of toxicology; toxicology models, experimental

    toxicology studies; activation and detoxification mechanisms, importance of

    biological membrane in toxicology; Toxicology and bioaccumulation of


    Books Recommended:

    1. Engines of Creation, KE Drexler, Oxford Paperbacks, New York ISBN 0192861492.

    2. Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manfuacturing and Computation, K E Drexler, Wiley, ISBN 0471575186.

    3. Our Molecular Future: How Nanotechnology, Robotics, Genetics and Artificial Intelligence will Transform the World, Prometheus ISBN



    BT-705 (E1)

    L T P

    3 1 0

    Unit I [8]

    Brief overview of in vitro regeneration methods of plants; Production of

    disease free plants: shoot - tip and meristem cultures; Protoplast isolation,

    culture and fusion, selection of hybrid cells and regeneration of hybrid

    plants, somatic hybridization, cybrids; Tissue culture as a source of genetic

    variability: somaclonal and gametoclonal variant selection, sources and

    causes of variation, application in crop improvement.

    Unit II [8]

    In vitro selection of mutants; Plant cell cultures for the production of useful

    chemicals: pigments perfumes, flavors, insecticides, anticancer agents and

    pharmacologically important compounds; Biotransformation using plant cell

    cultures; Hairy root culture and cell suspension.

    Unit III [8]

    Molecular Markers: RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, ARDRA, SCAR, STS, ESTs,

    Microsatellites, ISSR, SSCP, QTL; Brief overview of Arabidopsis and Rice

    Genome Projects.

    Unit IV [8]

    Ti, Ri and viral vectors for plant transformation; Brief overview of the

    methods for introduction of DNA into living cells with details of

    transformation mediated by Agrobacterium, microprojectile bombardment,

    electroporation and microinjection; Techniques for recombinant selection

    and screening: Functional (genetic) complementation, Nutritional

    complementation, Colony hybridization, Plaque hybridization, Southern

    hybridization, Dot blot, Northern blotting, Immunological screening,

    Western blotting, HART, HAT.

    Unit V [8]

    Brief overview of Bioremediation, Biodegradable plastics, Biofuels/

    Biodiesel, Bioinsecticides/Biopesticides, Biofertilizers; Edible vaccines.

    Books recommended:

    1. Chawla HS, “Plant Biotechnology: A Practical Approach”.

    2. Slater A, Scott NW, Fowler MR “Plant Biotechnology: The Genetic

    Manipulation of Plants”.

  • 3. Dixon RA, Gonzales RA, “Plant Cell Culture: A Practical Approach”.

    4. Mantell SH, Matthews JA, McKee RA, “Principles of Plant

    Biotechnology: An Introduction to Genetic Engineering in Plants”.

    5. Stafford A, Warren G, “Plant Cell and Tissue Culture (Biotechnology


    6. Brown TA, “Gene cloning: An Introduction”.

    7. Old and Primrose, “Principles of Gene Manipulation”.

    8. Bhojwani SS, Razdan, “Plant Tissue Culture”.

    9. Sambrook and Russell “Molecular Cloning – A Laboratory Manual”.

    10. Lele S “Biodiesel”.

    11. Ranjen R “Transgenic plants”.

    12. Kavikishor “Plant tissue culture and biotechnology”, Universities


    13. Bhojwani SS “Agrotechnology and plant tissue culture”, Oxford and


  • BT-705 (E-2)

    Food Biotechnology

    (Revised) L T P

    3 1 0

    Unit 1 8

    Food as substrate for microorganisms: pH, Water content (water activity)

    and O-R potential. Microbial role in food process and production of new

    protein foods: Single Cell Protein (SCP), mushroom, food yeast, algal


    Unit 2 8

    General principles underlying spoilage of foods and different methods of

    preservation of foods, Microbial food poisoning and its prevention or

    control, food borne infection and food toxins. Spoilage of meat and meat

    products, fish, poultry, egg, canned foods.

    Unit 3 8

    Organisms and their use for production of fermented foods and beverages:

    pickling, and alcoholic beverages. Physico-chemical properties of milk,

    toned, double toned and skimmed milk. Nutritive value of fermented milk

    products: cream, butter, cheese, curd and yogurt. Antimicrobial systems in


    Unit 4 8

    Food adulteration and diseases caused due to food adulteration.RDA

    (Recommended Dietary Allowances). Relevant Food laws: PFA, AgMark,

    FSSA, ISO, BIS standard with Laboratory Services and Certification by

    BIS. HACCP system, NABL and quality control and quality assurance.

    Unit 5 8

    Starter culture, pure culture technique: steak plate, pour plate, maintenance

    of culture. Microscope colony counts, most probable numbers (MPN).

    MBRT test, Saponification value, Iodine Value, RM value, Polanski Value,


    Books recommended: 1. Potter N and Hotchikiss “Food Science” CBS Publ.

  • 2. Potter N “Technology of Food preservation”, CBS.

    3. Eckles CH “Milk and Milk Products”, TMH Publ.

    4. Frazier “Food Microbiology”.

    5. De J and De “Food Microbiology”.

    6 Marwaha SS and Arora “Food processing: Biotechnological

    Applications”, Asitech Publ.

    7. Sukumar De “Outlines of Dairy Technology”.

    8. Adams MR and Moss MO “Food Microbiology”, The Royal Society

    of Chemistry, Cambridge.

    9. Andrews AT, Varley J “Biochemistry of milk products”, Royal

    Society of Chemistry.

    10. Banwart GJ “Basic food microbiology”, Chapman & Hall, New York.

    11. Frazier WC and Westhoff DC “Food microbiology”, TATA McGraw

    Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi.

    12. Hobbs BC and Roberts D “Food poisoning and food hygiene”, Edward

    Arnold (A division of Hodder and Stoughton), London.

    13. May JM “Modern food microbiology”, CBS Publishers and

    distributors, New Delhi.

    14. Robinson RK “The microbiology of milk”, Elsevier Applied Science,


    15. Robinson RK “Dairy Microbiology”, Elsevier Applied Science,



    BT-705 (E3)

    L T P

    3 1 0

    Unit I [8]

    Monoclonal antibodies: applications, generation, recombinant antibodies,

    production methods, Pharmaceutical, regulatory and commercial aspects.

    Unit II [8]

    Formulation of proteins and peptides: making small protein particles,

    precipitation of proteins, quality control issues, multi-phase drug delivery

    system; Preparation of collagen, gelatin particles, albumin microparticles.

    Unit III [8]

    Proteins and phospholipids: structural properties of phospholipids, injectable

    lipid emulsions, liposomes, cochleal phospholipids structures; Polymeric

    systems for oral protein and peptide delivery.

    Unit IV [8]

    Pulmonary drug delivery systems for biomacromolecules; Lipid based

    pulmonary delivery; Solid colloidal particles; Polycyanoacrylates; Poly

    (ether-anhydrides); Diketopiperazine derivatives; Poly ethylene glycol

    conjugates; Factors affecting pulmonary dosing.

    Unit V [8]

    Polymers used for controlled drug delivery: Hydrophobic polymers

    poly(esters), poly(cyanoacrylate), poly (ortho esters), poly (phosphazenes),

    Hydrophobic polymers poly (alkyl methacrylates), poly (methacrylates),

    poly (acrylates)], alginates, chitosan, polyethylene glycol. Gene therapy: the

    current viral and non-viral vectors.

    Books recommended:

    1. Groves MJ „Pharmaceutical Biotechnology‟, Taylor and Francis Group.

    2. Crommelin DJA, Robert D, Sindelar „Pharmaceutical Biotechnology‟. 3. Kayser O, Muller R „Pharmaceutical Biotechnology‟. 4. Banga AK „Therapeutic peptides and proteins‟.


    BT-706 (E1)

    L T P

    2 1 0

    Unit I


    Principles of Thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics, The

    definition of enthalpy and heat capacity, Hess's law,, Kirchhoff s law, the

    second law of thermodynamics, The Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, Calculation

    of entropy and Gibbs energy change, The physical nature of entropy. The

    third law of Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium,

    The law of mass action and the equilibrium constant, The Van't Hoff

    equation. Numerical problems.

    Unit II


    Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics (NET): Linear non-equilibrium

    thermodynamics (LNET), Formulation of the relationships between forces

    and flows, Multiple inflection points, Coupling in bioenergetics,

    Thermodynamic regulation in bioenergetics. Numerical problems.

    Biological applications of LNET: Oxidative phosphorylation (OP),

    Facilitated transport, Active transport, photosynthesis.

    Unit III


    ATP and it requirements: ATP the molecule, The Multiple Ionization

    States of ATP and the pH Dependence of ΔG°, The Effect of Metal Ions on

    the Free, Energy of Hydrolysis of ATP, The Effect of Concentration on the

    Free Energy of Hydrolysis of ATP, Daily IHUman Requirement for ATP,

    Numerical problems.

    Unit IV


    Modeling for Metabolic Engineering: Aims and Scope of Metabolic

    Models, Ingredients of a Metabolic Model, Model Validation.

  • Stoichiometric Network Models: Basic assumptions and measured data,

    Matrix generation, Metabolic flux analysis, Extreme flux patterns, Optimal

    flux patterns, Elementary flux modes. Stationary Mechanistic Models: Basic

    assumptions, Available data, Modeling, Simulation, Metabolic control

    analysis, Branch node classification, Large parameter variations, Optimal

    regulatory architectures.


    D. Jou and J.E. Llebot., Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Biological

    Processes, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1990.

    S.R. Caplan and A. Essig, Bioenergetics and Linear Nonequilibrium

    Thermodynamics, The Steady State, Harvard University Press, Cambridge,


    J. T. Edsall and H. Gutfreund, Biothermodynamics: To study of

    Biochemical Processes at Equihbrium, Wiley, Chichester, 1983.


    BT-706 (E2)


    L T P

    2 1 0

    UNIT I 8

    Cell renewal by stem cells, stem cell therapy and its applications; genesis,

    modulation and regeneration of skeletal muscle, marrow transplantation.

    Basics of gene therapy, replacement therapy, hormone therapy.

    Hemopheresis procedures, Hemopoietic stem cell disorders: classification

    and manifestations; Aplastic, Myelo dysplastic, myeloproliferative

    syndromes; Immunological principles, preservation and clinical use of blood

    and blood components.

    UNIT II 8

    Techniques in clinical and laboratory diagnosis: hematology, biochemistry,

    microbiology and serology. Molecular diagnostic techniques.

    UNIT III 8

    Principles, working and applications of Electrical Impedence

    Cephalography; Biotelemetry; CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    assisting the heart and kidney; Electrocardiogram; Ultrasonography, X-Ray.

    UNIT IV 8

    Types of spoilage of pharmaceutical products: factors responsible,

    assessment of spoilage, means of preservation, evaluation of microbial

    stability of formulations.

    Books recommended:

    1. Chaechter M. Medoff G. and Eisenstein BC. (1993) Mechanism of Microbial Diseases 2

    nd edition. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.

    2. Collee, JG. Duguid JP, Fraser AG, Marimon BP. (1989) Mackie and Mc Cartney Practical Medical Microbiology, 13

    th Edition. CIHUrchill


    3. David Greenwood, Richard CD, Slack, John Forrest Peutherer. (1992) Medical Microbiology. 14

    th edition. ELBS with CIHUrchill


  • 4. IHUgo WB and Russell AD. (1989) Pharmaceutical Microbiology IV edition. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford.

    5. Joan Stokes E, Ridgway GL and Wren MWD. (1993). Clinical Microbiology. 7

    th edition. Edward Arnold. A division of Hodder and


    6. Ronald M. Atlas. (1989) Microbiology. Fundamentals and Applications. II edition. Maxwell Macmillan international editions

    7. Topley & Wilsons‟s. (1990) Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, VIII edition, Vol. III Bacterial Diseases, Edward Arnold,



    BT-706 (E3)

    L T P

    2 1 0

    Unit I [8]

    History of animal cell culture and development, Basic techniques in

    mammalian cell culture; Cell culture media; Serum free media; maintenance

    of the culture and cell lines; Development of primary culture, Development

    of cell line methods for primary cell & organ culture (from explants by

    enzymatic disaggregation, mechanical disaggregation, EDTA treatment),

    organ culture.

    Unit II [8]

    Permanent cell lines: cell strains (Monolayer culture, suspension culture,

    stationary suspension culture, agar culture and agitated micro carrier

    suspension culture, hollow fiber systems). Measurement of growth and

    viability, cell synchronization, cell transformation, cryo-preservation,

    application of cell cultures, Animal Tissue Engineering.

    Unit III [8]

    Immunity to virus, bacteria and parasites, infectious diseases: tuberculosis,

    AIDS. Dysfunctions of immune system and their modulation, Approaches

    for correcting immune dysfunction. Principles and strategy for developing

    vaccines, Hybridoma techniques and monoclonal antibody production

    Applications of monoclonal antibodies in biomedical research and in clinical

    diagnosis and treatment.

    Unit IV [8]

    Stem cell culture, Embryonic and adult stem cells and their applications.

    Animal virus vectors; cloning in mammalian cells, Integration of DNA into

    mammalian genome, Methods of transformation :( Microinjection,

  • Electroporation, Microprojectile bombardment, Liposomal packaging). Gene

    knockout technology, gene transfers, transgenic animals and embryo transfer

    technology. Gene therapy, Human genome project, DNA


    Books recommended:

    1. Ian Freshney “Animal cell culture”

    2. Davis “Basic cell culture”

    3. Brown TA “Gene cloning: An introduction”

    4. Old and Primrose “Principles of Gene Manipulation”

    5. Davis D “Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based


    6. Atala A, Robert P. Lanza “Methods of Tissue


    7. Jenkins N “Animal Cell Biotechnology: Methods and


    8. Pinkert C “Transgenic Animal Technology: A Laboratory


    9. Riott “Immunology”.

    10. Potten “Stem cells”, Elsevier.

    11. Baveja and Rewari “Diagnosis and management

    of HIV / AIDS”, BI publications.

    12. Dracopoli et al. “Short protocols in IHUman genetics”,


    13. Animal Cell Culture Course Manual, Cold Spring Harbour

    Lab, New York.

    14. Kruse PE, Patterson MK „Tissue Culture Methods &


    15. Pollard „Basic Cell Culture Protocols‟, Blackwell




    L T P

    0 0 3

    1. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of waste water.

    2. Determination of heavy metal concentration in soil.

    3. Determination of sludge volume index and food to microorganisms.

    4. Determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen.

    5. Determination of BOD of wastewater samples.

    6. Determination of COD of wastewater samples.

    7. Enumeration of contaminating pathogenic organisms.

    Books recommended:

    1. Winter J „Environmental Processes series‟, Wiley Publications 2. Metcalf and Fuddy „Waste Water Engineering‟, TMH publications. 3. Sharma PD „Ecology and Environment‟. 4. Ramalho RS „Introduction to waste water treatment‟, Academic Press.



    L T P

    0 0


    1. A study of kinetic modeling of a batch reactor: Determination of

    kinetic equation explaining biomass formation.

    2. A study of kinetic modeling of a batch reactor: Determination of

    kinetic equation explaining Product formation.

    3. A study of kinetic modeling of a batch reactor: Determination of

    kinetic equation explaining Substrate consumption.

    4. A study of kinetic modeling of a batch reactor: Determination of

    kinetic equation explaining Biomass formation and Product formation

    considering non ideal mixing.