B-GL-392-003/FP-001 RAPPELLING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES

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Transcript of B-GL-392-003/FP-001 RAPPELLING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES

B-GL-392-003/FP-001 RAPPELLING TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES(Supersedes B-GL-392-003/FP-001 dated 1999-09-01)
Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Land Staff
B-GL-392-003/FP-001
WARNING
ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED THIS PUBLICATION OR PART OF IT MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR PART OF IT, MAY BE RELEASED.
MILITARY TRAINING
(Supersedes B-GL-392-003/FP-001 dated 1999-09-01)
Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Land Staff
OPI: DAT 3-6 2002-05-30
B-GL-392-003/FP-001
WARNING
ALTHOUGH NOT CLASSIFIED THIS PUBLICATION OR PART OF IT MAY BE EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE TO THE PUBLIC UNDER THE ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT. ALL ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN MUST BE CLOSELY SCRUTINIZED TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER OR NOT THE PUBLICATION OR PART OF IT, MAY BE RELEASED.
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
2. This publication is effective upon receipt and supersedes B-GL-392-003/FP-001, Rappelling from CH146 Helicopters dated 01 August 1999 in its entirety.
3. The French version of this publication is B-GL-392-003/FP-002, Les techniques et procedures de faire les decentes en rappel.
4. Suggested amendments should be forwarded through normal channels to the Directorate of Army Training (DAT) of the Land Force Doctrine and Training System (LFDTS).
5. Unless otherwise noted, masculine pronouns contained herein refer to both genders.
6. This publication is available electronically on both the Defence Information Network (DIN) and the World Wide Web in the Army Electronic Library. Keyword—Army Electronic Library.
©DND Canada 2002
iii
PREFACE
AIM
1. The aim of this manual is to provide the information required to train soldiers to rappel from towers and helicopters.
SCOPE
2. This manual deals with procedures for rappelling from the CH146 helicopter and the rappel tower. As the requirement to rappel from other helicopters arises, additional chapters will be promulgated.
NOTE
The training described in this manual shall be conducted under the supervision of qualified instructors using authorized equipment that is in good working order.
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
Definition................................................................................. 1 Military Applications............................................................... 1
SECTION 3 CONDUCT OF TRAINING .................................. 3 Rappel Training ....................................................................... 3 Refresher Training................................................................... 4
Rappel Master Training ........................................................... 4 SECTION 4 SPECIAL CONDITIONS ...................................... 4
Winter ...................................................................................... 4 Rappelling By Night................................................................ 5
General .................................................................................... 7 SECTION 2 CABIN RIGGING AND RAPPEL MASTER
EQUIPMENT......................................................... 7 Rope Specifications ................................................................. 7 The Carabiner .......................................................................... 7 The Ring Fitting and Slotted Stud ........................................... 8 Installation of the Anchor System ........................................... 9
B-GL-392-003/FP-001
vi
SECTION 4 THE RAPPELLING ROPE.................................. 16 Specifications ........................................................................ 16 Knots ..................................................................................... 17 Care of Ropes ........................................................................ 17 Inspection of the Ropes ......................................................... 18 Preparation of the Ropes ....................................................... 18 Stowing the Rappel Rope in a Sandbag................................. 18 Placing the Rappel Rope in a Carabiner ................................ 20
SECTION 5 PREPARATION OF PERSONAL WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT ............................................. 21
General .................................................................................. 21 Fighting Order and Weapons................................................. 22 Rucksack and Weapons......................................................... 23 Snowshoes............................................................................. 26 Toboggan............................................................................... 27 Bundles.................................................................................. 28
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION................................................ 31 Braking .................................................................................. 31
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
SECTION 3 IN-FLIGHT PROCEDURES ............................... 35 GET READY ....................................................................... 35 DROP ROPES ..................................................................... 35 POSITIONS ......................................................................... 35 GO......................................................................................... 36 On Landing............................................................................ 36 Dropping Toboggans and/or Bundles by Rappel................... 36 Commands and Signals ......................................................... 37
SECTION 4 EMERGENCY SITUATION PROCEDURES .... 39 General .................................................................................. 39 Helicopter Power Failure....................................................... 39 Inadvertent Rope Drop .......................................................... 39 Knotted Rope......................................................................... 39 Entangled Rappel Rope ......................................................... 40 Rappeller in Difficulty........................................................... 40
CHAPTER 4 DUTIES OF THE RAPPEL MASTER SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION................................................ 41 SECTION 2 INSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF THE
HELICOPTER...................................................... 41 SECTION 3 PREPARATION OF THE RAPPELLERS .......... 42
General .................................................................................. 42 Inspection of Rappellers ........................................................ 43 Boarding the Helicopter......................................................... 44
SECTION 4 WORDS OF COMMAND, SIGNALS AND RAPPEL MASTER DUTIES IN FLIGHT........... 45
General .................................................................................. 45
CHAPTER 5 RAPPEL TOWER TRAINING SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION................................................ 49
Description ............................................................................ 49 Inspection .............................................................................. 49 Safety Factors ........................................................................ 50
SECTION 2 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES .................. 51 Rappel Master........................................................................ 51 Rappel Master Assistant ........................................................ 52
SECTION 3 RAPPELLING FROM THE LOW AND HIGH WALL .................................................................. 53
Introduction ........................................................................... 53 Procedures Before Training................................................... 53 Rappelling from the low Wall ............................................... 53 Rappelling from the High Wall ............................................. 55
Introduction ........................................................................... 58 Operation, Safety Checks and Proper Sequence for Dispatching Rappellers from a Free-Rappel Site .................. 58
SECTION 5 RAPPELLING AN EQUIPMENT LOAD............. 61 Introduction ........................................................................... 61
ANNEX A WORDS OF COMMAND AND ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN................................................... 63
Sequence of Commands ........................................................ 63 ANNEX B RAPPEL MASTER EQUIPMENT
CHECKLIST ...................................................... 65 ANNEX C CHART FOR ROPE LENGTHS...................... 67
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
Rucksack...................................................................... 26 Figure 2-22: Snowshoes Fixed to the Rucksack .............................. 27 Figure 2-23: Toboggan Ready for Rappel........................................ 28 Figure 2-24: Bundle of Two Water Cans ......................................... 28 Figure 2-25: Bundle of Two Water Cans Ready for Rappel ............. 29 Figure 3-1: Sandbag Position ............................................................ 34 Figure 3-2: Positions of the Rappellers on the Skids ........................ 36 Figure 3-3: Get Ready Signal............................................................ 37 Figure 3-4: Drop Ropes Signal ......................................................... 38 Figure 3-5: Positions Signal .............................................................. 38
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
DEFINITION
1. To rappel is to descend by means of a rope passed around the body in such a way as to allow a rapid but controlled descent. Modifications to this technique have resulted in the procedures described in this manual.
MILITARY APPLICATIONS
2. Rappelling increases the mobility and flexibility of forces and also permits maximum use to be made of helicopters. The following are some applications of this technique:
a. insertion of personnel into a potential landing zone (LZ) to clear or improve a suitable landing site;
b. insertion of reconnaissance parties near a suitable LZ to confirm that it is clear of enemy and safe for a helicopter landing site;
c. clandestine insertion of patrols;
d. insertion of forward observation officer (FOO) parties or artillery reconnaissance parties;
e. positioning of radio rebroadcast personnel and equipment in otherwise inaccessible areas; and
f. insertion of medical rescue parties.
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
THE CH146 HELICOPTER
3. In a clean configuration with a mission fuel load and without troop seats and other mission kits, the CH146 helicopter can carry up to six fully equipped rappellers. If the time of flight to the rappel area is long, or if the rappel will be done at high altitude (mountain terrain), it may be necessary to reduce the number of rappellers and/or the aircraft load. The table below provides an overview of recommended configurations for the CH146 helicopter with different numbers of rappellers:
PERS EQUIPMENT AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION
8 Webbing and weapon " "
" "
6 Webbing and weapon " "
" "
Any configuration
4. Under ideal conditions, the CH146 helicopter may be used to place rappellers into an area of approximately 20 feet (6 m). For example, rappellers may be placed onto the top of a building or into heavily wooded areas if it is apparent the rappellers can penetrate the tree canopy and execute a safe rappel to the ground.
Introduction
3
LIMITATIONS TO RAPPELLING
5. If the aircraft commander feels that he cannot maintain position or altitude due to wind gusts or turbulence, rappelling will not be permitted. Visibility must permit the aircraft commander to see the ground at all times. Rappelling is not permitted when the helicopter is fitted with skis. The area immediately in front of the helicopter must be clear of any equipment and obstacles to permit an emergency landing.
SECTION 3 CONDUCT OF TRAINING
RAPPEL TRAINING
6. Operational policy directives detail the extent that rappel training is to be conducted by units of Land Force Command and specify the equipment required to support it. Training shall progress through the following phases:
a. initial training;
c. rappelling from the helicopter.
7. Initial training includes the care and handling of ropes and equipment used in helicopter rappelling, knots and the rigging and carriage of all personal equipment. Prior to helicopter training, rappel tower training must be completed, which must include the wall and free rappel site.
8. Helicopter training on the ground permits the rappellers to practice aircraft drills under strictly controlled static conditions prior
NOTE
Wind speed for training in rappelling from the CH146 helicopter shall not exceed 40 km/h (22 knots).
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
B-GL-392-003/FP-001 4
to flight. The helicopter is rigged for rappelling, and all rappellers complete their preparations and drills, including boarding the aircraft. Details on this training are given in Chapter 3.
9. The rappellers can commence rappelling from the helicopter immediately following the ground training.
RAPPEL MASTER TRAINING
10. The training plan for rappel masters outlines the number and types of dispatches that a candidate must perform to obtain the qualification. Rappel master training may be conducted at unit level. On successful completion of the course, rappel masters are qualified to conduct unit rappel training, which includes tower and helicopter rappelling only. Duties of the rappel master are outlined in Chapter 4.
REFRESHER TRAINING
11. Refresher training shall also be done prior to helicopter rappelling if the personnel have not rappelled within the past six months. A rappel master who is not current shall conduct refresher training with another qualified rappel master who is current IAW LFCO 24-12 Annex A.
SECTION 4 SPECIAL CONDITIONS
WINTER
12. Helicopter rappelling may be conducted in very cold weather conditions. However, wind chill factors and training necessity must be considered. Very high wind chill conditions exist underneath the helicopter in the rotor downwash and affect the ability of the brake personnel to effectively do their job.
13. The rappel master and aircraft commander also discuss and determine the requirement for the aircraft doors to be open or closed. The requirement for any transit time and the cold temperature determine if the doors should be closed. If doors are closed, masking
Introduction
5
of the helicopter door ledge is not possible. The method used to insert rappellers in winter conditions with their tent group equipment is described in Chapter 2.
RAPPELLING BY NIGHT
14. The governing factor on whether or not helicopter rappelling at night is possible is the pilot’s ability to see the ground or a reference point that will enable him to maintain a stationary hover. Under normal conditions, the aircrew uses night vision devices (NVDs) during night rappelling to aid in their ability to see adequate ground references. The requirement for the rappel area to be lit during the exercise must be discussed between the aircraft commander and the rappel master. If required, the aircraft landing light can be used to light the area immediately beneath the aircraft.
15. For night operations the rappel master shall conduct all safety checks prior to take-off. In the event of a sustained flight, the rappel master shall ensure that the aircrew are briefed and that the aircraft has a blackout curtain installed.
NOTE
Only green filtered light is permitted in the cabin area during night operations.
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
GENERAL
1. The equipment specified in Section 2 is available on demand through the supply system or local purchase. It is the standard equipment used in helicopter rappelling.
SECTION 2 CABIN RIGGING AND RAPPEL MASTER EQUIPMENT
ROPE SPECIFICATIONS
2. The rope used to construct the helicopter anchor system is 12 mm kermantle static rope that must be locally procured.
3. The rope used to rappel from helicopters is 11 mm or 12 mm hawser-laid nylon that is available through the Canadian Forces Supply System.
THE CARABINER
4. The only carabiner authorized for use is the steel screw-gate locking carabiner oval type with a tensile strength of 2270 kg (5000 lbs), NSN 8465-21-896-8280 (Figure 2-1).
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
THE RING FITTING AND SLOTTED STUD
5. The ring fitting is rated to 565 kg (1250 lbs) and is part of all tactical helicopter aircraft equipment. The ring fitting (Figure 2-2) can only be installed on the slotted floorboard stud (Figure 2-3).
Figure 2-2: Ring Fitting
Equipment and Initial Training
INSTALLATION OF THE ANCHOR SYSTEM
6. The following sequence is to be used for installing the anchor system in the helicopter:
a. Place the ten ring fittings into the slotted floorboard studs. Lay the fixed cable on the floor with the fixed end toward the pylon.
b. Place four carabiners through the ring fitting, the floor ring and around the cable, ensuring the screw gates are closed, facing up and toward the centre, as per Figure 2-4.
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
Figure 2-4: Floor Ring Placement
c. For port side, place carabiners through both the floor ring and the ring fitting, ensuring that they are facing upward and inward towards the centre (Figure 2-5).
Figure 2-5: Rappel Anchor System
d. Tie a double figure-eight knot in the end of each attachment rope.
e. Attach each anchor rope to the primary anchor ensuring the screw gates face up and close the carabiner.
Equipment and Initial Training
B-GL-392-003/FP-001 11
f. Place a carabiner on the other figure-eight and attach to cable as shown in Figure 2-5.
g. The process is repeated for the starboard side.
h. Once all rigging is complete, ensure all carabiners are closed.
THE SAFETY HARNESS
7. The rappel master is required to wear a safety harness when dispatching rappellers. The harness used is the standard safety harness, NSN 1670-21-869-1377.
THE RADIO HEADSET
8. The rappel master wears a radio headset while engaged in his duties. The headset provides the rappel master with communications to the aircrew through the intercommunication system.
KNIFE
9. The rappel master carries a sheath knife capable of cutting 12 mm rope while engaged in his duties.
SECTION 3 INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT
GENERAL
10. The individual equipment required for the helicopter rappelling consists of the following items:
a. soldier’s helmet;
b. gloves with liner;
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
d. steel screw-gate locking carabiner oval type, NSN 8465-21-896-8280.
11. Combat and arctic clothing, including the white camouflage, may be worn when rappelling. The rappeller must ensure that drawstrings and loose material are not exposed in such a manner as to cause entanglement with the rappel rope as it passes through the carabiner.
HELMET
12. The soldier’s helmet shall be worn when rappelling. It shall be fitted properly and fastened snugly.
GLOVES
13. Either leather gloves with liner or arctic mittens, if climatic conditions dictate, may be worn when rappelling.
SLING ROPE AND CARABINER
14. The sling rope is a 4.6 m (15-foot) length of 11 mm or 12 mm hawser-laid nylon with each end taped and burned. As described in Section 2, the only carabiner authorized for use is the steel screw-gate locking carabiner oval type with a tensile strength of 2270 kg (5000 lbs), NSN 8465-21-896-8280 (Figure 2-1). The sling rope and a carabiner are used to make a Swiss seat.
THE SWISS SEAT
15. The Swiss seat is made as follows:
a. Place the centre of the sling rope over the left hip (Figure 2-6).
Equipment and Initial Training
Figure 2-6: Swiss Seat Bight
b. Bring the rope around the waist and tie two wraps (Figure 2-7).
Figure 2-7: Swiss Seat Double Wrap
c. Pass the ends of the rope between the legs from front to rear and pass both ends under the rope encircling the waist at the hips (Figure 2-8).
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
Figure 2-8: Swiss Seat Rope Path
d. Pass the running ends behind and under the rope coming from between the legs to form a locking bight (Figure 2-9).
Figure 2-9: Swiss Seat Locking Bight
e. Bring both ends around the waist and tie over the left hip with a square knot and one half-hitch around both
Equipment and Initial Training
B-GL-392-003/FP-001 15
ropes on either side of the square knot with the running ends routed towards the pocket (Figure 2-10).
Figure 2-10: Swiss Seat Square Knot Secured
f. Tuck any surplus rope from the running ends in the left lower pants pocket or shirt pocket (Figure 2-11).
Figure 2-11: Swiss Seat Rope Stowage
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
B-GL-392-003/FP-001 16
g. Take a carabiner with the screw-gate up, hinges towards the centre of the body, and, with a backward motion, engage both ropes into the carabiner (Figure 2-12).
Figure 2-12: Attachment of Carabiner to Swiss Seat
h. Complete the rotation until the screw-gate is in the upward position again with the screw-gate up and out. This completes the Swiss seat.
16. Rappelling requires no great manual dexterity on the part of the individual. For this reason, all rappellers perform the necessary actions right handed. The problem of left-handed rappellers is compounded by the fact that the right-hand lay of the rope increases the possibility of entanglement.
SECTION 4 THE RAPPELLING ROPE
SPECIFICATIONS
17. The standard length of a rappel rope is 240 feet (73.2 m). The rappel rope is 11 mm or 12 mm hawser-laid nylon rope, NSN-4020-21-879-9586.
Equipment and Initial Training
KNOTS
18. The knots used in rappelling are the square knot, double figure-eight, and the half-hitch. These knots shall be taught or reviewed as part of the ground training.
CARE OF ROPES
19. In order to ensure safety and to prolong the life of the rope, the following common sense rules shall be followed:
a. Do not drag ropes on the ground, as particles of dirt will be trapped between the strands and gradually wear them down.
b. Pad or tape any sharp edges or corners with which the rope may come in contact.
c. Keep ropes as dry as possible. If they become wet, dry them thoroughly as soon as possible. Avoid contact with direct heat sources when drying. Do not store wet ropes.
d. Do not leave a rope tightly knotted or under tension any longer than necessary.
e. Do not hang ropes on nails or sharp projections. Lay them out loosely coiled or hang them on wooden pegs.
f. Do not allow ropes to come in contact with gasoline, oil, fuel or hydraulic fluid. If any portion of a rope becomes saturated with these fluids, the entire rope must not be used for rappelling.
g. To prevent fraying, the ends of rope must be taped and burned.
h. Ropes should be rat-nested in a sandbag for carrying.
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
B-GL-392-003/FP-001 18
i. Rappel ropes shall not be used for any other purpose.
INSPECTION OF THE ROPES
20. All ropes shall be stretched to full length and carefully inspected before and after each use. The rope shall be twisted open in five or six places along its length to allow inspection of the inside strands.
PREPARATION OF THE ROPES
21. Rappelling ropes for helicopters and those for the tower are prepared in the same manner. After the rope is inspected, it is stretched to ensure that there are no twists or kinks. A double figure-eight is tied in the middle of the rope. The loop shall be only large enough to enable a carabiner to be placed through the opening (Figure 2-13).
Figure 2-13: Double Figure-Eight Knot
STOWING THE RAPPEL ROPE IN A SANDBAG
22. Once the rope has been laid out on the ground, inspected and prepared, it shall be rat nested inside a sandbag by a two-man team so
Equipment and Initial Training
B-GL-392-003/FP-001 19
that the rope may be easily handled and will fall freely when dropped from the helicopter or tower. The rope shall be stowed in a sandbag as follows:
a. 25 cm of running end will be threaded through a hole in the bottom corner of the sandbag, while the rest of the rope is rat nested on the ground (Figure 2-14).
Figure 2-14: Rope Stowing—Step 1
b. While the number two holds the sandbag, the remainder of the rope shall be rat nested into the sandbag (Figure 2-15).
Rappelling Techniques and Procedures
Figure 2-15: Rat Nesting Rappel Rope in a Sandbag
c. Every so often the…