Aydin durgunogluleslla2011

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  1. 1. LITERACY DEVELOPMENT OF ADULTSWITH LIMITED FORMAL EDUCATION Aydin Ycesan Durgunolu University of Minnesota Duluth LESLLA 2011, Minneapolis
  2. 2. Since in 1996, program in Turkey for adults withlimited or no schooling. Has reached 100,000+ learners, UNESCOaward Based on research on cognitive and affectivedimensions of literacy development includes literacy, numeracy and empowermentcomponents
  3. 3. mostly women, of all backgrounds, ages
  4. 4. volunteer instructors professional development mentoring field support
  5. 5. Materials Books (Level 1 and Level 2)program continuously evaluated and booksrevised Outside materials, newspapers Online version, portal just opened
  6. 6. Back to USA According to the 2000 census, more than 35million are nonnative speakers of English Majority are Spanish-speakers Approximately 11 million adults (5% of thepopulation) are nonliterate in English (but notnecessarily in their L1) In federally-funded adult education classes,42% are in ESL classeshttp://www.cal.org/caelanetwork/pd_resources/Foreign-Born.htmlBurt, Peyton & Adams, 2003
  7. 7. Practical implications Level of literacy closely tied to employment, income,occupation Chiswick (1991, 1998) reading and writing, rather thanspeaking, language capital Mothers education strong predictor of child languageand literacy development (Snow, Barnes, Chandlar,Goodman & Hemphill, 1991)
  8. 8. HeterogeneityDifferenthome languagesHighly varied educational levels in L1 (from noschooling to postgraduate work)Varied education in L2 Some born and/or mostly educated in US (Generation1.5) Burt, Peyton & Adams, 2003; Condelli, Wrigley & Yoon, 2009; Purcell-Gates,Degener, Jacobson, and Soler, 2002; Strucker & Davidson, 2003; Thonus 2003;Wrigley, Chen, White and Soroui, 2009
  9. 9. Very limited research base Condelli & Wrigley (2004): 111 studies 17 fit thecriteria 2 about ESL and only one had anunconfounded design Torgerson, Brooks, Porthouse, Burton, Robinson,Wright& Watt (2004): almost 5000 reports 33 studies withcontrolled trial designsonly 3 with ESL as a focus. Krudenier (2004): only 9 studies of adult ESL. Adams and Burt (2002): adult LL research between1980 and 2001 only 44 studies about adult EnglishLLs not in academic post-secondary programs (butsome were in English preparatory classes beforecollege)
  10. 10. Informed by research on: Native speakers in Adult Basic Education Second/Foreign Language Acquisition in high schoolsand colleges Language and literacy development of young LLs Cognition and neuroscience of bilingualismBUT..Question of generalizability because of differencesin: age; educational context; SESBigelow and Tarone, 2004; Burt, Kreeft, Peyton & Van Duzer, 2005; Davidson &Strucker, 2002; Nanda & Morris, in press; Strucker, Yamamoto & Kirsch, 2007
  11. 11. Child literacy development in L2LL and native speaker similaritiesWithgood instruction, LLs = native speakers onword recognition, spelling and phonologicalprocessingSimilar predictors of decoding and spellingproficiencies for beginning readers (e.g.,phonological awareness and concepts of print.)Similar precursors, profiles of reading difficulties(not related to exposure or quality of instruction)and intervention effectsAugust & Shanahan, 2006; Genesee, Lindholm-Leary, Saunders, Christian, 2006Lovett, De Palma, Frijters, Steinbach, Temple, Benson, & Lacerenza, 2008
  12. 12. Child literacy development in L2LL and native speaker similarities (pt. 2) Rapid progress from preliterate to beginnerlevels but face more challenges around Grades3 and 4 as reading is used as a tool forknowledge acquisition. Benefit from direct instruction on phonologicalawareness, decoding, vocabulary,comprehension, writing Academic English is different fromconversational English. Highlighting linguisticstructures and formats in different content areasAchugar & Schleppegrell, 2005; Collier, 1987; Goldenberg, 2008; Schleppegrell, 2007)
  13. 13. Child literacy development in L2 LL and native speaker differences The gap between native speakers and LLs inreading comprehension grows with grade Having a strong literacy foundation in L1 helpsfor English literacy development Given the interconnectedness of oracy andliteracy, developing both skills simultaneously isuseful even in young language learners
  14. 14. Child literacy development in L2LL and native speaker differences (pt. 2) LLs are considerably behind native speakers onreading comprehension tasks (underdevelopedL2 oral proficiency and background knowledge). LLs need support with oral languagedevelopment, especially vocabulary, syntax andbackground-cultural knowledge.Farver et al., 2009; Roberts & Neal, 2004; Slavin & Cheung, 2005
  15. 15. Adult Language Learners Data from Durgunoglu et al. (unpublished)Participants Beginning level adult literacy/ESL students Hmong (n=38) three sites in Minnesota Spanish (n=77) two sites in Minnesota and IllinoisProcedureDetermining the existing characteristics of participants as they start their classes Interview (demographics, background, goals conducted in L1) Language test (L2--English vocabulary) Literacy tests (L1 and L2)
  16. 16. Hmong language South East Asian language, spoken by people in Laos,Thailand, Burma, Vietnam, China Tonal like Chinese, but from a different language family Subject-Verb-Object word order No tense or case inflections, but noun classifiers Alphabetized in 1850s by missionaries Tones represented by the last letter of the wordtib high tone to piletij high but falling tone older brother
  17. 17. Literacy tests (in L1) Word recognition Hmong (researcher-created) 20 items Spanish (Woodcock-Muoz) 58 items Spelling Hmong (researcher-created) 12 items Spanish (researcher-created) 12 items
  18. 18. Language and Literacy tests (in L2, English) TOWRE sight words TOWRE nonwords WRAT spelling Woodcock Language survey, productive vocabulary Gates-MacGinitie reading comprehension Level 1 Hmong (n=38) and Spanish1 (n=40) groups Level 2 Spanish2 (n=37) group
  19. 19. DemographicsHmongSpanish1Spanish2age 33.84(8.1) 31.53 (7.9) 32.76 (8.9)Years in the US 6.12 (7.6) 9.73 (7.6)8.74 (6.9)No. of children 5.00 (2.9) 1.93 (1.4)1.57 (1.5)% female42 5557Last grade4.14 (3.9) 10.08 (3.0) 8.56 (3.1)completed
  20. 20. L1 reading measures (in percentages) HmongSpanish1 Spanish2word recognition 0.81 (.31) 0.97 (.04) 0.94 (0.6)spelling 0.73 (0.3) 0.80 (.11) 0.83 (0.1)
  21. 21. Means (sds) of English measuresHmong Spanish1Spanish2reading comp 17.18* (12.1) 27.18* (7.0) 12.51** (9.8)vocabulary16.39 (7.2) 17.83 (3.2) 15.20 (4.9)WRAT spell18.72 (6.9) 20.48 (4.1) 20.53 (3.8)TOWRE Sight 21.34 (11.6)48.45 (14.9) 41.89 (16.2)TOWRE nw8.09 (8.1)30.60 (12.8) 28.53 (17.6)
  22. 22. Predictors of English reading comprehensionHmong groupReading comprehension Test (level 1)English predictorsR2 betaSteps1. Vocabulary28% -.0072. TOWRE nonwords+15 -.0013. WRAT spelling +17 .454*4. TOWRE Sight words +7.427* Total 67%
  23. 23. Predictors of English reading comprehensionSpanish1 groupReading comprehension Test (level 1)English predictorsR2 betaSteps1. Vocabulary16% .340*2. TOWRE nonwords+7.1113. WRAT spelling +1.0244. TOWRE Sight words +3.239 Total 27%
  24. 24. Predictors of English reading comprehensionSpanish2 groupReading comprehension Test (level 2)English predictorsR2 betaSteps1. Vocabulary10% -.2132. TOWRE nonwords+8-.1173. WRAT spelling +19 .606*4. TOWRE Sight words +4.428 Total 41%
  25. 25. Predictors of English word recognition (combinedTOWREs)Hmong and combined SpanishgroupsStep SpanishHmong R2 betaR2 beta1. L1 word recognition 13.5 .335* 35 .452*2. English vocabulary+3.5 .1935 .269 Total 17%40%
  26. 26. Predictors of English spellingHmong andcombined Spanish groupsStep Spanish Hmong R2betaR2 beta1. L1 word recognition 0 .00835 .364*2. English vocabulary28.532* +14 .441* Total 28% 49%
  27. 27. Conclusions Very low levels of reading comprehension and wordrecognition (approximately Grade 1 level) of theparticipants who are just starting the ESL/literacycourses L1 word recognition for both Hmong and Spanishgroups is related to English word recognition L1s similarity to English makes a difference, helps wordrecognition, but hinders spelling for Spanish speakers Spelling is closely related to vocabulary performance,indicating that vocabulary development related towritten language experience Predictors of reading comprehension similar to what isfound with children
  28. 28. Factors influencing adult L2development (oral and written)
  29. 29. L1 educational experiences, L1 literacy, L1 typologyOneof the strongest predictors of outcomesBigelow & Tarone, 2004; Condelli, Wrigley & Yoon, 2009; Fitzgerald & Young, 1997;Ross, 2000; Strucker & Davidson, 2003Changesin cognitive processing with educationDellatolas, Braga, Souza, Filho, Queiroz & DeLoache, 2003; Stanovich, West andHarrison, 1995; Reis, Guerreiro & Petersson, 2003Culture, education and cognitionCeci, 1991; Choi, Koo, & Choi, 2007; Choi, Nisbett, & Norenzayan, 1999; Nisbett,Peng,Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001; Norenzayan & Nisbett, 2000L1structure, writing systemAkamatsu, 2003; Burt et al., 2003; Hamada & Koda, 2008; Hornberger, 1989;Tokowicz & Macwhinney, 2005; Ziegler & Goswami, 2005
  30. 30. Existing English proficiencyDecoding develops rapidly, tied to L1 literacyVocabulary(depth, breadth, quality) Higher L2 vocabulary, more progress in children Importance of exposure, incidental learning ~3000 words minimum, ~9000 for college levelCulturalcontext, prior knowledge, academiclanguageAlamperese, 2009 Brantmeier, 2005; Droop & Verhoeven, 1998; Kieffer, 2008;Lesaux, Koda, Siegel & Shanahan, 2006; Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Wrigley, Chen, Whitean