Axial Skeleton Lab Guide - Lab COMPONENTS The skeletal system is comprised of 2 subdivisions:...

download Axial Skeleton Lab Guide -   Lab   COMPONENTS The skeletal system is comprised of 2 subdivisions: axial and appendicular. AXIAL SKELETON Skull: cranial and facial bones

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Transcript of Axial Skeleton Lab Guide - Lab COMPONENTS The skeletal system is comprised of 2 subdivisions:...

  • Axial Skeleton


    Tuberosity Rounded area on bone often roughened for muscle attachment.

    Tubercle Rounded projection on bone. This is called a tuberosity on the femur.

    Crest Ridgeline of bone for muscle attachment.

    Spine Pointed process projecting from bone as a site of muscle attachment.

    Condyle Knob-like rounded projection, often smooth, as a part of a joint.

    Epicondyle Projected area located above a condyle where muscles can attach.

    Ramus Beam of bone.

    Head Enlarged area on a narrow neck.

    Facet Slightly depressed area on bone that articulates with another bone.

    Fossa More pronounced dip on the bone.

    Meatus Tunnel-like passageway.

    Foramen Large opening though bone or bony features.

    Fissure Narrow opening like a crack.

  • SKELETAL COMPONENTS The skeletal system is comprised of 2 subdivisions: axial and appendicular. AXIAL SKELETON

    Skull: cranial and facial bones Vertebral Column: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx Rib Cage: True, False, Floating Ribs and Sternum


    Upper and Lower Limbs Attachment girdles: pelvic and pectoral girdles

    Bones and features are written/spoken as: Transverse process of the 5th thoracic vertebra. Ischial tuberosity of the right ischium. Mastoid process of the left temporal bone.


    Mandible jaw bone - Ramus wide vertical beam of bone on the posterior aspect of the body - Mandibular condyle place where jaw articulates with temporal bone - Angle posterior corner of jaw - Mandibular notch U shaped area anterior to mandibular condyle - Body lateral and anterior portion of chin - Mental Foramen holes on the chin - Alveolar margin place where teeth go - Mandibular foramen hole inside the ramus

    Maxillae upper jaw and hard palate

    - Palatine process anterior part of hard palate - Alveolar margin where sockets for teeth are

    Palatine posterior part of hard palate Nasal bridge of nose Vomer medial division of nasal cavity, divides nose R/LL

    Lacrimal medial wall of orbit

    - Lacrimal fossa tears to enter nasal

    Zygomatic cheek bone o Temporal process projects toward temporal bone


    Sutures - Coronal suture - Sagittal suture - Squamous suture - Lambdoid suture - Occipitomastoid suture

    Frontal Bone forehead and eyebrow ridge

    Parietal Bones (2) posterior to frontal bone

    Temporal Bones (2) deep to the ears (tempo)

    - Zygomatic Process posterior aspect of cheekbones - Styloid Process pointy process inferior to external auditory meatus - External auditory canal tunnel for hearing - Mandibular fossa dipped in area for mandible to hinge (TMJ) - Carotid Canal opening for internal carotid artery

    Occipital Bone back and base of head, inferior to the parietal bones

    - Foramen magnum massive hole at the bottom of skull for spinal cord - Occipital condyles rounded projections that rest on the first cervical vertebra - External occipital protuberance bump on the back of the head

    Ethmoid Bone inside skull, roof of the nasal cavity

    - Crista galli looks like a sharks fin - Cribriform plate has holes like a

    cribbage board - Superior and middle nasal conchae

    delicate shelves within the nasal cavity

    Sphenoid Bone inside skull, forming the anterior-middle section of the floor

    - Optic foramina (2) where optic nerves enter skull from eye

    - Sella turcica Turkish saddle to contain (seat) the pituitary gland


    Cervical Vertebrae (7) vertebrae of the neck - Atlas yes bone and holds up skull - Axis - no - *Transverse foramen holes for vertebral


    Thoracic Vertebrae (12) vertebrae that attach to ribs - *Costal facet surface where ribs articulate,

    slight depression

    Lumbar Vertebrae (5) vertebrae of lower back - *Body (huge) massive mass of bone to support

    torso and upper body

    Sacrum (5 fused) posterior aspect of pelvis

    Coccyx (4 fused) tail bone

    Vertebra Features (found on all vertebra) - Body large anterior surface for bearing

    weight - Vertebral Foramen prominent hole for spinal

    cord - Transverse Processes lateral beams of bone - Spinous Process posterior projection of bone - Intervertebral Foramen between adjacent

    vertebrae where nerves leave spinal cord - Superior and inferior articulating processes

    protrusions of bone above and below



    Thoracic Vertebrae

    Lumbar Vertebrae

    Cervical Vertebrae


    Sternum breast bone, attachment for true ribs and clavicle - Manubrium looks like the knot of a tie - Body main portion - Xiphoid process small inferior tip from body,

    watch out for this when doing CPR

    True ribs (7) ribs that have direct attachment from thoracic vertebrae to sternum

    False ribs (3) ribs that have an indirect attachment to sternum via costal cartilage

    Floating ribs (2) no attachment to sternum, only attached at thoracic vertebrae



    Sternal border

    Vertebral attachment






    6 7 1

    2 3



    Clavicle (2) collar bone - Sternal end end that articulates with the sternum - Acromial end end that articulates with the scapula

    Scapula (2) shoulder blade - Glenoid cavity (fossa) surface or cup for shoulder joint - Acromion (Acromial process) posterior lateral process, largest bony feature - Coracoid process anterior lateral process, smaller than acromial process - Spine prominent horizontal bony feature on posterior aspect - Inferior angle inferior point or triangle - Subscapular fossa anterior surface (underneath scapula) - Medial border edge of scapula that faces toward the vertebral column - Lateral border edge of scapula that is under the glenoid cavity


    Sternal end

    Acromial end


    Sacrum Coccyx Ossa Coxae (2) made of 3 separate bones (although it looks like a single bone)

    Ossa Coxae Main feature of the ossa coxae (all 3 bones together) is the Acetabulum or hip socket.

    Ischium most inferior portion, you are sitting on it! - Ischial tuberosity roughened part that you sit

    on, site of muscle attachment - Lesser sciatic notch - Ischial spine bump below greater sciatic notch - Ischial ramus beam of bone, anterior

    Ilium the hip or flared out bowl of pelvis

    - Iliac fossa basin or scooped out medial aspect - Iliac crest superior ridgeline where hands rest

    on your hips - Greater sciatic notch - Anterior superior iliac spine - Anterior inferior iliac spine - Posterior superior iliac spine - Posterior inferior iliac spine

    Pubis anterior portion of ossa coxae

    - Superior ramus beam of bone extending posterior - Inferior ramus beam of bone extending down





  • Appendicular Skeleton - Appendages UPPER EXTREMITY ARM

    Humerus upper arm, technically the arm - Head smooth rounded proximal surface - Anatomical neck ridge behind smooth head - Greater tubercle large rough bump lateral to head - Lesser tubercle smaller rough bump lateral to head - Intertubecular (bicipital) groove between tubercles - Deltoid tuberosity roughened rise along the shaft - Medial epicondyle medial, process, above joint - Lateral epicondyle lateral bump above joint - Trochlea looks like a spool of thread - Capitulum round, lateral to the trochlea - Olecranon fossa posterior distal dip


    Ulna forearm bone on the medial (pinky) side - Olecranon process hook on proximal end, elbow - Coronoid process anterior proximal end, lower part of wrench - Trochlear notch anterior-facing scooped out surface - Radial notch lateral-facing scooped out surface - Styloid Process pointy feature at the most distal portion

    Radius forearm bone on the lateral (thumb) side

    - Head looks like a golf tee - Radial tuberosity proximal medial end - Ulnar notch distal end, tiny scooped out surface - Styloid process pointy feature at the most distal portion

    Carpals (8) wrist

    - Scaphoid articulates with radius - Lunate articulates with ulna - Triquetral distal to lunate (between lunate & hamate) - Pisiform pointy, most medial, on top of triquetral - Trapezium most lateral, at base of thumb - Trapezoid medial to trapezium - Capitate between trapezoid and hamate - Hamate medial bone next to metacarpals

    Metacarpals (5) hand

    Phalanges (14) fingers


    Femur thigh bone - Head spherical area on proximal end - Neck skinny part on proximal end - Greater trochanter large bump lateral to head - Lesser trochanter bump inferior, posterior to head - Gluteal tuberosity roughened area posterior diaphysis - Medial epicondyle bony bump felt on medial knee - Lateral epicondyle bony bump felt on lateral knee - Medial condyle smooth surface on medial, distal end - Lateral condyle smooth surface on lateral, distal end - Intercondylar fossa (notch) dip between

    condyles on posterior distal aspect Patella sesamoid bone, fulcrum for quadricep muscle, knee cap

    Tibia primary weight bearing bone of the lower leg, shin - Intercondylar eminence point sticking straight up

    at proxima