Axial Skeleton Friday, December 2 nd. Skull Bones Review Mental Foramen

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Transcript of Axial Skeleton Friday, December 2 nd. Skull Bones Review Mental Foramen

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  • Axial Skeleton Friday, December 2 nd
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  • Skull Bones Review Mental Foramen
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  • The Teeth Human teeth show a morphology mainly differentiated by : 1. The shape of their upper surface = crown 2. The number of tooth roots 3. The purpose of each tooth type Cutting Shredding Grinding
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  • The Teeth
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  • Incisors Cutting teeth 8 incisors Very front of the mouth Rather flat surfaces A straight sharp horizontal edge for cutting and biting 1 long conical root
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  • The Teeth Canines 4 Very strong, pointed corner teeth Used for tearing and shredding Larger and stronger than the incisors 1 single root Upper canines are sometimes called eyeteeth
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  • The Teeth Premolars 8 Used for chewing foot Placed lateral to and behind the canine teeth Flat upper surface 1-2 roots Crown has 2 cusps
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  • The Teeth Molars 12 Back of the mouth Large and flat upper surface 2-4 roots Largest of the permanent teeth Used for final chewing and grinding before swallowing 3 rd molars = Wisdom teeth
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  • The Auditory Ossicles 3 smallest bones in the body Ossicles mean tiny bones Contained within the middle ear space Serve to transmit sounds from the air In order from the eardrum to the inner ear (superficial to deep) 1. Malleus 2. Incus 3. Stapes
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  • The Auditory Ossicles Malleus Hammer Articulates with the incus and is attached to the eardrum (or tympanic membrane) Incus Anvil Connected to the other ear bones Stapes Stirrup Articulates with the incus
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  • The Auditory Ossicles Malleus Incus
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  • The Auditory Ossicles Stapes
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  • The Auditory Ossicles
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  • The Vertebral Column Major Functions Cervical Support the weight of the head and trunk Thoracic Protect spinal cord Lumbar Allow spinal nerves to exit spinal cord Sacral Site for muscle attachment
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  • The Vertebral Column Abormalities Scoliosis Lateral curvature of spine (usually in children )
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  • The Vertebral Column Abormalities Lordosis Exaggerated anterior curve of lumbar spine (barrel chest)
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  • The Vertebral Column Abormalities Kyphosis Exaggerated posterior curve of thoracic spine (humpback)
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  • The Vertebral Column Each bone consists of: A body An arch Several processes
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  • The Vertebral Column Body Weight bearing portion Vertebral arch Surround vertebral foramen Formed from joining laminae and pedicales Vertebral foramen All form the vertebral canal = spinal cord
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  • The Vertebral Column Transverse Process Extends laterally from each side of the arch between the pedicle and lamina 2 Laminae Extend from transverse processes to spinous process
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  • The Vertebral Column Articular Processes Where vertebrae articulates with each other Spinous Process Extends dorsally from 2 laminae
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  • The Vertebral Column Intervertebral discs Dense fibrous connective tissue Drying along with the weakening of ligaments of the vertebral column Predisposes older people to herniated discs slipped discs
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  • The Vertebral Column Cervical - 7 1 st Atlas Yes motion No body 2 nd Axis No motion
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  • The Vertebral Column Cervical Small bodies Each transverse process has transverse foramen Whiplash hyperextension of the cervical vertebrae
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  • The Vertebral Column Thoracic - 12 Long, thin spinous processes Articulates with the ribs
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  • The Vertebral Column Lumbar - 5 Large, thick bodies Heavy rectangular transverse and spinous processes Sturdiest of the vertebrae
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  • The Vertebral Column Sacrum Alae wings Articulates with the hip bones 5 fused vertebrae
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  • The Vertebral Column Coccyx Tailbone Usually 4 fused vertebrae Very reduced bodies No foramina or processes
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  • The Bony Thorax The Rib Cage Bony and cartilaginous structure Supports the pectoral girdle Provides attachments for the muscles of the neck, thorax, upper abdomen and back Consists of 24 ribs The sternum 12 thoracic vertebrae
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  • The Bony Thorax The rib parts: Head end of the rib closest to the vertebral column Neck - is the flattened portion which extends lateralward Tubercle - articulates with the transverse process Angle bending portion
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  • The Bony Thorax Manubrium the broad, upper part of the sternum articulates with the clavicles and first 2 ribs Body The lengthier and narrow part of the sternum Below the manubrium
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  • The Bony Thorax Xiphoid Process Small cartilaginous process of the lower sternum Ossified in adults Costal Cartilage Bars of hyaline cartilage Push ribs forward Contribute to the elasticity of the rib cage
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  • The Bony Thorax Vertebrosternal or True Ribs Upper 7 ribs Attached to the sternum (costal cartilage) Allow movement (breathing) False ribs 5 sets of ribs below true ribs Has no direct attachment to the sternum
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  • The Bony Thorax Vertebrocostal ribs Those ribs connected to the lower thoracic vertebrae with costal cartilage Ribs 7 or 8 down to rib 10 Each rib is attached to the costal cartilage of the rib located superiorly to it (above it) AKA False ribs because their costal cartilage does not attach directly to the sternum
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