Axial Skeleton

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Lab # 4. Axial Skeleton. Skeleton. Axial Skeleton. Appendicular Skeleton. Axial Skeleton. Skull. Vertebral column. Thoracic cage. Axial Skeleton I. The Skull. 1- Frontal (1) . 2- Parietal (2) . Cranial bones. 3- Temporal (2) . 4- Occipital (1) . 5- Sphenoid (1) . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Axial Skeleton

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Axial SkeletonLab # 4

SkeletonAxial SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton

Axial Skeleton SkullVertebral column Thoracic cage

The SkullAxial Skeleton ISkull1- Frontal (1) 2- Parietal (2) 3- Temporal (2) 4- Occipital (1) 5- Sphenoid (1) 6- Ethmoid (1) 7- Ear ossicles (6) 1- Nasal (2) 2- Lacrimal (2) 3- Inferior nasal concha (2) 4- Palatine (2) 5- Vomer (1) 6- Zygomaticus (2) 7- Maxilla (2) 8- Mandible (1) Cranial bonesFacial bones

CRANIAL BONESPARIETAL BONE TEMPORAL BONE OCCIPITAL BONE LACRIMAL BONEFRONTAL BONE SPHENOID BONE ETHMOID BONE NASAL BONE MAXILLA MANDIBLE ZYGOMATIC BONECoronal sutureSquamous sutureStyloid processMastoid processExternal auditory canalLateral viewMandibular fossa Condyloid process of mandible

CRANIAL BONESFACIAL BONESFRONTAL BONECoronal suture SPHENOID BONESquamous suturePARIETAL BONE TEMPORAL BONEStyloid processExternal auditory canalMastoid process Condyloid process of mandible ETHMOID BONE MANDIBLE NASAL BONE LACRIMAL BONE ZYGOMATIC BONE MAXILLA OCCIPITAL BONEAlveolar process of maxillaAlveolar process of mandibleMandibular fossaLateral viewThe Skull

Perpendicular plate of ethmoidNasal septumMiddle nasal conchaInferior nasal conchaVomerAlveolar process of maxillaAlveolar process of mandible

FRONTAL BONEAnterior viewCRANIAL BONESFACIAL BONESMAXILLAVOMER MANDIBLEPerpendicular plate of ethmoid bone LACRIMAL BONE ETHMOID BONE SPHENOID BONEAlveolar processes of maxillaAlveolar processes of mandibleINFERIOR NASAL CONCHA ZYGOMATIC BONEMiddle nasal concha (part of ethmoid) NASAL BONE TEMPORAL BONE PARIETAL BONE

SPHENOIDHypophyseal fossa or sella turcicaCRANIAL BONESCribriform plate of ethmoid boneCrista galli of ethmoid boneCarotid canalsJugular foramen

Foramen ovaleForamen lacerum Foramen ovaleForamen lacerumHard palatePosterior cranial fossaAnterior cranial fossaMiddle cranial fossaSPHENOID BONEOCCIPITAL BONETEMPORAL BONEOCCIPITAL BONEInferior viewInterior viewPalatine process of maxillaPALATINE BONESPHENOID BONEVOMER BONEMandibular fossaStyloid processMastoid processOccipital condyles Foramen spinosum Foramen rotundumForamen magnumCarotid canalJugular foramenOptic foraminaCrista galli of ethmoid boneHypophyseal fossaCribriform plate of ethmoid boneCRANIAL AND FACIAL BONES ARE CONNECTED BY JOINTS, WHICH ARE INMOVABLE AND ARE REFERRED AS SUTURES 1- Sagittal suture2- Coronal suture3- Lambdoid suture4- Squamous suture

Posterior view Superior viewOCCIPITAL BONEPARIETAL BONE (right)PARIETAL BONE (left)FRONTAL BONESUTURESSagittal sutureCoronal sutureLambdoid suture



SINUSES: They are air-filled chambers in the interior of some bonesPARIETAL Midsagittal viewOCCIPITAL FRONTAL TEMPORAL Styloid processMastoid processHypophyseal fossaCrista galli Sphenoidal sinusPerpendicular plate of ethmoid Cribriform plate of ethmoidPALATINE BONEPalatine process of maxillaSPHENOID ETHMOID Frontal sinusMAXILLAVOMER

PARIETAL Midsagittal viewOCCIPITAL FRONTAL TEMPORAL Cribriform plate of ethmoidSPHENOID ETHMOID Hypophyseal fossa Sphenoidal sinusCrista galli Frontal sinusEthmoidal sinusPerpendicular plate of ethmoidPalatine process of maxillaPALATINE BONEStyloid processMastoid process

Mandibular notch Mandibular angle Ramus of mandibleMental foramenLateral viewThe MandibleAlveolar margin Mandibular condyle Coronoid process Mandibular foramen

FONTANELS: Are areas of fibrous tissue that connect the cranial bones of the infant. The connection are quite flexible, so the skull can be distorted during delivery without damage Anterior or frontal fontanelAnterolateral or sphenoid fontanelPosterolateral or mastoid fontanelPosterior or occipital fontanel

Frontal bone Parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone Sphenoid bone Squamous suture Coronal suture Lambdoidal suture Anterolateral (sphenoid) fontanel Posterior fontanel Anterior fontanel Posterolateral (mastoid) fontanelLateral View of Fetal Skull Fetal Skull

Vertebral bodySpinous processTransverse processVertebral foramenVertebra (prototype)Inferior articular surfaceInferior viewSuperior articular surface

AtlasAxisDens of axisTransverse ligamentSuperior articular facet

Cervical curveThoracic curveLumbar curvePelvic curve

Vertebral Column of an AdultLateral viewC7T1T12L1L5Atlas (C1)Axis (C2)Intervertebral discsIntervertebral foraminaCoccyxSacrum

Atlas (C1) Axis (C2) Superior viewSuperior viewVertebral foramenVertebral foramenPosterior archTransverse processAnterior archLamina Spinous processSuperior articular facet DensTransverse processTransverse foramenSuperior articular facet

Vertebral foramenBodyCervical VertebraSuperior viewLateral viewSpinous processSuperior articular facetTransverse foramenSpinous processInferior articular processBodyTransverse processTransverse processBifid tip of spinous processSuperior articular processSuperior articular process

Vertebral foramenTransverse costal facet for tubercle of ribBodyBodyThoracic VertebraSuperior viewLateral viewInferior notch Spinous processSuperior articular facetSuperior costal demifacet for head of ribSuperior articular processSuperior costal demifacet for head of ribInferior costal demifacet for head of ribSpinous processTransverse process

Vertebral foramenBodyBodyLumbar VertebraSuperior viewLateral viewSpinous processSuperior articular processSuperior articular processSuperior articular facetTransverse processSpinous processInferior articular process

Superior viewLateral viewThoracic (12) Cervical (7) Lumbar (5)A comparison of vertebrae from cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions

Intervertebral foramina are passageways for spinal nerves running to or from the enclosed spinal cord Intervertebral foraminaVertebral foramenTransverse foraminaTogether, the vertebral foramina of successive vertebrae form the vertebral canal , which encloses the spinal cord Transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae are passageways for vertebral artery (and vein, no shown)

Anterior viewPosterior viewSacrum and CoccyxCoccyx Sacrum(Fused components of 5 vertebrae) S1S2S3S4S5Coccyx (3 to 5 coccygeal vertebrae)Superior articular processesMedian sacral crestSacral foraminaLateral sacral crestSacral hiatus

11 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 56 6 7 7 8 8 9 9T1They are connected to the sternum by separated costal cartilagesTrue or vertebrosternal ribs (ribs 1-7)False ribs (ribs 8-12)T12L1 1 1 2 2 3 344556776Floating ribsFloating ribsThe Thoracic CageFloating or vertebral (11,12)Vertebrochondral (8,9,10)Costal cartilages 12 1211111010

SternumAnterior viewRibArticulation between the ribs and thoracic vertebraeSuperior viewPosterior (vertebral) endManubriumBodyXiphoid processNeckHeadAnterior (sternal) endTubercleTubercle Transverse costal facetDemifacetNeckHead


InhalationExhalationMovements of curve ribs affects the volume of the thoracic cageRib cage elevates and diaphragm contractsRib cage returns to the normal position and diaphragm relaxes