AWilliams PhD Thesis

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People cascades, land and livelihoods: Farmer and herder land-use relations in the Idodi rangelands, Tanzania

Andrew Williams

PhD Thesis University College London

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Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University College London, 2005.

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AbstractLand policies in Africa have often been predicated on marginalising or extinguishing customary land tenure systems in favour of introducing more efficient formal systems of individual titling and registration of land. This approach has been marked by its frequent failure and high cost. In Tanzania, recently introduced land laws instead now recognise customary systems and set out a basis for incorporating them in a village-based land tenure system. Yet there is growing apprehension that placing an emphasis on recognising customary practices will compound the growing trend of social differentiation, elite capture and the increasing numbers of landless poor. These issues can be better understood through investigating who benefits and loses from instances of negotiability in access to land at a local level, particularly in the light of broader political economic and social changes. Based on field work carried out in central Tanzania, the study traces the socio-environmental outcomes of herders and farmers living in the Idodi rangelands. Over the last 50 years, a substantial portion of these rangelands have been taken over by the state for the creation of wildlife conservation areas. The remaining parts of the rangelands have been settled by successive waves of farmers and herders, mainly associated with evictions from the creation of protected areas, other state-perpetrated land alienations in northern Tanzania, and state-enforced villagisation. Over time, the continued immigration of people into the Idodi villages has added to an already growing population, such that today, key resources - fertile arable land, grazing and water - are in increasingly short supply. The story of the Idodi rangelands reflects developments occurring in many other parts of Tanzania. In particular, wetland areas in the dryland rangelands have become a focus of in-migration and heightened competition for land and water, as farmers and herders alike converge on these centres of relatively high fertility and productivity. Often, as in the Idodi rangelands, competition for land and water has grown sufficiently great for conflict to break out in these polyethnic dryland-wetlands. The social negotiability of land has remained central for herders access to key land and landed resources. In the Idodi rangelands, herders have used their growing social relations with farmer-based centres of power to avoid conflict and maintain access to farmland. Contrastingly conflict over land has occurred when other herders have not sufficiently invested in social relations with farmers over access to land. Herders continue to remain squatters - albeit socially legitimate ones - on village land, without firm rights to rangeland resources. In recent years strong social relations have not been sufficient to guarantee herders security in the landscape. It is clear that the land entitlements of marginalised herder groups may often need safeguarding by the government, but it less clear what the best approach may be. In Idodi, a more overt expression of pastoralists rights to land would likely lead to polarisation between farmer and herder, and an increase in conflict and competition over land. Too little consideration has been given by the government to enabling the pluralistic yet equitable development of locally diverse customary understandings of land tenure. The continued increase in competition and conflict over access to land - as has occurred in Idodi - strongly suggests that priority should to be given in land reform processes to the development of locally legitimate dispute resolution fora that focus on negotiated outcomes wherever imposed adjudicatory decisions can be avoided. 3

ContentsAcknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... 12 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 14

1.1 A study overview ............................................................................................................................................ 14 1.2 The thesis structure .......................................................................................................................................... 16 2 Safeguarding environment and productivity ...................................................................... 18

2.1 Received knowledge, past policy and new understandings ................................................................. 18 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2.1 Received knowledge and past policy ....................................................................................... 18 New understandings ................................................................................................................... 19 Collective action: Common pool resource and moral entitlement theories ........................ 22

2.2 Recent theoretical advances in the society and environment debate ................................................. 22 Common pool resource theory ............................................................................................................... 22 The moral entitlement school .................................................................................................................. 24 2.2.2 Political ecology.......................................................................................................................... 24 2.3 Contending with new paradigms of complexity in environment and society..................................... 27 2.4 Land and institutions: social embeddedness, inequality and conflict ................................................... 30 2.4.1 2.4.2 The evolutionary model of land tenure.................................................................................... 33 Communitarian understandings of land tenure ...................................................................... 35

2.5 Mainstreaming new understandings of society and environment in policy ........................................ 36 2.6 The study approach, analytical framework and methodology ............................................................ 38 2.6.1 2.6.2 The study context ........................................................................................................................ 38 The research questions and analytical framework ................................................................. 39

Research questions ................................................................................................................................... 39 The analytical framework....................................................................................................................... 40 2.6.3 3 The study methodology .............................................................................................................. 42

Tanzanian semi-arid rangelands in perspective................................................................... 44

3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 44 3.1.1 3.2.1 3.2.2 Defining the semi-arid rangelands ........................................................................................... 45 Colonial partitioning and landscape re-organisation ........................................................... 48 Post independence state control: Ujamaa, deconcentration and decentralisation ............ 50 3.2 Some key developments affecting rangeland management in Tanzania .......................................... 48

The early independence years.............................................................................................................. 51 The Arusha Declaration and the onset of Ujamaa ............................................................................ 52 Deconcentration of state power ............................................................................................................ 55 The end of Ujamaa: decentralisation, liberalisation and local government reform .................. 55 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 Control and space: state and nature ....................................................................................... 57 New Tanzanian land tenure legislation and its implications for herders and farmers ..... 62 People cascades: landlessness, insecurity and wanderings ................................................... 65

3.3 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................................... 69 4

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The dryland-wetland frontier of Idodi and Pawaga ............................................................. 71

4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 71 4.2 The Greater Ruaha Ecosystem: Idodi and Pawaga ................................................................................ 71 4.3 Idodi and Ikwavila valley ............................................................................................................................. 73 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 The agro-ecology of Idodi and the Ikwavila valley .............................................................. 77 The people and socio-economy of Idodi and the Ikwavila valle