Automotive Market Perspective of Ultracapacitors[1]

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    Automotive Market

    Perspective of Ultracapa

    Hyun Jin Song

    NESSCap Inc.

    Advanced Capacitors WJuly 17-19, 200

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    Outline

    Market Drivers

    Vehicle Simulation Results- Fuel Cell Hybrid Technology- FCEV Power Management Scenario- Power Simulation in HMC Driving Mode

    270V/ 15.7F EDLC Module

    - Specifications- Discharge Simulation- Chassis Dynamometer Test Results

    450V / 13.3F Hybrid Cap Module- Specifications- Capacitance, ESR, charge/discharge charact- UC10, UC50 and Cold Crank Test Result

    Summary and Conclusions

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    Market Drivers

    Ultra-capacitors are an attractive energy storage device

    generation vehicles:

    High power and cycle life capabilities

    Value proposition for micro-hybrid vehicles is higher

    Value proposition for buses and delivery vehicles is higher

    Ideal solution as distributed energy cache at the critical loa

    high peak power

    X-by wire (ECB, EPS) Micro, Mild-Hybrid

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    FCEV Power Management Sc

    Re

    (8

    Acceleration Assist Power

    Supply (40kWMax)

    Source: Hyun

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    0 300 600 900

    -100

    0

    100

    Vehicle Speed

    Motor Power

    Time (sec)

    Speed,

    MotorPower

    -100

    0

    10 0

    SCAP Power

    SupercapPower

    Power Simulation in HMC Driv

    Discharge(power assist)

    Charge(regeneration)

    100kW Motor and 430V/11.8F Supercap

    Ideal solution for extremely high power and short

    Source: Hyun

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    EDLC Module for FCEV

    Value

    270

    292

    15.7

    76

    Max. 186

    Rated 159

    Usable 120

    Wh/l 2.3Wh/kg 2.8

    66

    80.8

    1242x290x224

    Weight (kg)

    Volume (L)

    Rated Voltage (VR)

    Max Voltage (VM)

    Energy (Wh)

    Capacitance (F)

    ESR (mOhm, DC)

    ax nergyDensity

    Dimensions (LxWxH, mm)

    Paremeters

    270V/15F module

    Specifications

    Hyu

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    Simulated Discharge Profile

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    Calculated Constant Current Discharge Profile of 270V/15.7F Ultracap Module

    Voltage(V)

    Time (sec)

    100Amp

    150Amp

    200Amp

    250Amp

    300Amp

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    Chassis Dynamometer Test Re

    FCEV Spec.

    Gasoline-equivalent fuel economy

    FC currents und

    Source: EVS21, Monaco, 2005 / Hyun

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    17170mESR (DC)

    DownsizedModule(1/10 Scale)

    Full ScaleModule*

    Unit

    > 15

    -25~70

    > 7.4 (@80kW)

    > 14 (@40kW)

    4.0

    4.5

    95

    107

    230

    430

    13.3

    483

    450

    48.3VMax. Voltage

    > 1.5

    -25~70

    > 7.4 (@8kW)

    > 14 (@4kW)

    4.3

    8.0

    5.4

    10

    23

    43

    133

    45

    WhUsable Energy (450V~280V)

    WhMax. Energy

    KgWeight

    kWCold Cranking Power @ -30oC

    for 30 sec. (3 times for 10sec.)

    oCOperational Temp. Range

    secPulse Charge Duration @375V

    secPulse Discharge Duration @375V

    Wh/kg

    Wh/LMax. Energy Density

    LVolume

    FCapacitance

    VVoltage

    450V / 13.3F Hybrid Cap Mod

    * Preliminary

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    CompositiActive Cel

    Module siz

    Volume: 9

    Cooling Fa

    NTC therm

    Connector

    Temperat

    Layout and Functions of 450V/13

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    7400JMax. Energy

    0.8mESR (DC)

    0.321KgWeight

    -25~60oCOperating

    Temp. Range

    6.4Wh/kg

    9.7Wh/LMax. Energy

    Density

    0.212LVolume

    2800FCapacitance

    2.3VVoltage

    2.3V/2800F Hybrid Cap

    Specification

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    Testing on 45V/133F Hybridcap

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    0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

    21

    24

    27

    30

    33

    36

    39

    42

    45

    48

    V2 = 27V (60% Vmax)

    T2 = 478 sec

    V1 = 36V (80% Vmax)

    T1 = 224 sec

    Capacitance of 45V module at R.T.

    Vo

    ltage(V)

    Time(sec)

    V1

    - V2

    : Discharge Volta

    Result

    C=141F

    T2

    - T1

    : Discharge Time

    I : Discharge current (

    C = I * (T2

    - T1) / (V

    1- V

    Test Conditions

    1) Constant voltage char2) Constant current disc

    Capacitance Measuremen

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    Result

    ESR=15.8m

    I : Discharge curreV : Voltage drop fo

    ESR = V/ I

    Test Conditions

    1) Constant voltage c2) Constant current d

    40

    41

    42

    43

    44

    45

    46

    IR-Drop of 45V Module at R.T.

    IR-Drop at 10mSec

    V = 1.63V

    Voltage

    Current

    Time

    Voltag

    e(V)

    -120

    -100

    -80

    -60

    -40

    -20

    0

    Current(A)

    ESR Measurement

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    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    28

    30

    32

    34

    36

    38

    40

    42

    44

    46

    Constant Power Discharge

    2kW

    4kW

    8kW

    Voltage(V)

    Time(sec)

    0 5 10 15 20

    28

    30

    32

    34

    36

    38

    40

    42

    44

    Constant Powe

    Voltage(V)

    Time(sec

    Test Conditions1) Discharge: CVC 10min at 45V CPD at 2, 4 and 8kW2) Charge: CVC 10min at 28VCPC at 2, 4 and 8kW

    Results

    Charge Time (sec)

    Discharge Time (sec)

    Charge / Discharge Character

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    UC10 Test Profile

    Round Trip Efficiency in UC10

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    Results

    Test current / pow

    Round-trip efficien

    = (Wh (discha

    Discharge Energy(W

    Regen Energy(Wh)

    Round-trip efficien

    Test Result on UC10

    5763.6 5767.2 5770.8 5774.4 5778.0 5781.6 5785.2 5788.8 5792.4

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    voltage

    Energy Efficiency Test (UC10)

    Time(sec)

    Voltage(V)

    -150

    -100

    -50

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    current

    Current(A

    )

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    0 4 8 12

    -250

    -200

    -150

    -100

    -50

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    Current(C-rate)

    Time in P

    Rest Step1

    Discharge Step

    Rest 2 (OCV)

    Charge

    Rest 1 (OCV)

    Discharge

    Test

    Current

    (C-rate)

    Cumulativ

    e Time in

    Profile

    (seconds)

    Step Duration

    (seconds)

    Ultracapacitor Energy Effic

    Ultracapacitor Energy Efficiency and Life Test Profile

    Round Trip Efficiency in UC50

    UC50 Test Profile

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    Results

    Test current / pow

    Round-trip efficien

    = (Wh (discha

    Discharge Energy(W

    Regen Energy(Wh)Round-trip efficien

    Test Result on UC50

    9608 9616 9624 9632 9640 9648 9656

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    voltage

    Energy Efficiency Test (UC50)

    Time(sec)

    V

    oltage(V)

    -450

    -225

    0

    225

    450

    675

    900

    current

    Current(A)

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    0 10 20 30

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    Time(sec)

    Voltage(V)

    Cold Cranking Pulse Test @-30oC

    1.515010

    004010

    1.513010

    002010

    1.511010

    Test Power

    (kW)

    Test Power

    (Relative)

    CumulativeTime in Profile

    (seconds)

    StepDuration

    (seconds)

    Results1) Enough power supply

    FCEV at -30C2) Minimum voltage of

    voltage of 30.5V afte

    Cold Cranking Pulse Test Profile

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    Summary and Conclusions

    Ultracap provides ideal solution for X-by Wire, HE

    FCEV hybridized with EDLC is 10% more energy ethan battery FCEV. This comes from several aspec

    - High recuperation efficiency- Faster dynamic response

    - High charging/discharging efficiency of ultracap in witemperature

    Feasibility study on a hybrid type ultracapacitor mtwice volumetric energy of EDLC is undergoing.

    - Fairly high efficiencies in UC10 and UC50 cycle testing- Enough col