Automotive Electronics From Herman Casier

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Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment Herman CasierAMI Semiconductor Belgium herman_casier@amis.com 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 2 Outline 1 Introduction Automotive Market and trends Characteristics of Electronics in a car Automotive Electronics Challenges Cost and Time To Market Quality and Safety Quality requirements Safety requirements DFMEA2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 3 Outline 2 High Voltage : the car battery History of the car battery Why switching over to 42V PowerNet Specifications of car-batteries Example: lamp-failure detector Example: high-side driver High Temperature requirements Temperature range specification Functionality and reliability limits Diode leakage currents Example: bandgap circuit Example: SC-circuit 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 4 Outline 3 EMC general Definition of EMC Compliance and pre-compliance tests EMC standards EMC standards in IC-design EME Electro Magnetic Emission 1O/150O test method EME what happens? EME how to cope with? Example: digital circuit current peaks Example: CANH differential output 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 5 Outline 4 EMS Electro Magnetic Susceptibility DPI Direct Power Injection method EMS compliance levels EMS what happens? EMS how to cope with? Example: rectification of single ended signal Example: rectification of differential signal Example: substrate currents in ESD diodes Types of substrate currents Example: jumper detection 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 6 Outline 5 Automotive transients (ISO-7637) (sometimes called Schaffner pulses) Transient pulse definitions Transient pulses what happens? Example: supply & low-side driver Example: bandgap circuit Acknowledgments References 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 7 Trends in automotive > 1920 + pneumatic systemslow high technical skills + hydraulic systems low driving skills > 1950 + electric systems increasinggood technical skillsincreasing driving skills > 1980 + electronic systemscongestionlow technical skills + optronic systems startshigh driving skills > 2010 + nanoelectronicscongestedvery low technical skills+ biotronic systemsoptimizationdecreasing driving skills starts > 2040 + robotics maximal andno technical skills + nanotechnologyoptimizedno driving skillsCAR Technology TRAFFIC DRIVER SKILLS > 1891 mechanical system very lowvery high technical skills 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 8 Automotive Electronics Phase 1: Introduction of Electronicsin non-critical applications Driver information and entertainmente.g. radio, Comfort and conveniencee.g. electric windows, wiper/washer, seat heating, central locking, interior light control Low intelligence electronic systems Minor communication between systems(pushbutton control) No impact on engine performance No impact on driving & driver skills2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 9 Automotive Electronics Phase 2: Electronics support critical applications Engine optimization:e.g. efficiency improvement & pollution control Active and Passive Safetye.g. ABS, ESP, airbags, tire pressure, Xenon lamps Driver information and entertainment e.g. radio-CD-GPS, parking radar, service warnings Comfort, convenience and security:e.g. airco, cruise control, keyless entry, transponders Increasingly complex and intelligent electronic systems Communication between electronic systems within the carFull control of engine performanceNo control of driving & driver skillsBut reactive correction of driver errors.Electronics impact remains within the car2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 10 Automotive Electronics Phase 3: Electronics control critical applications Full Engine controle.g. start/stop cycles, hybrid vehicles Active and Passive Safetye.g. X by wire, anti-collision radar, dead-angle radar Driver information and entertainment e.g. traffic congestion warning, weather and road conditions Comfort and convenience Very intelligent and robust electronics Communication between internal and external systems Information exchange with traffic network Full control of engine performance Control of driving and (decreasing) driving skillsProactive prevention of dangerous situations insideand around the car Full control of car and immediate surroundings2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 11 Automotive Electronics Phase 4: Fully Automatic Driver(1st generation) Traffic network takes control of the macromovements (upper layers) of the car Automatic Driver executes control of the car and immediate surroundings (lower and physical layers) ADAM: Automatic Driver for Auto-Mobileor EVA : Elegant Vehicle Automat Driver has become the Passenger for the completeor at least for most of the journey Driver might still be necessary if ADAM becomes an Anarchistic Driver And Madmanor EVA becomes an Enraged Vehicle Anarchist2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 12 Automotive Drivers Safety (FMEA) level 1: remains in-spec in Harsh environment Increasing Complexity more functions and more intelligence : makesthe car system more transparant for the driver Increasing Accuracy More, higher performance sensors : cheapest sensors require most performance Low cost and Time-To-Market (of course) Legislation 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 13 AutomotiveICs HBIMOS (2.0m) I2T (0.7m) I3T (0.35m) 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 14 Technology EvolutionFeature size trend versus year of market introductionfor mainstream CMOS and for 80-100V automotive technologies 2000201019901980 0.1 1.0 10 Technology Node(m) BIMOS-7m SBIMOS-3m HBIMOS-2m I2T-0.7m I3T-0.35m CMOS Year of Market Introduction 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 15 Introduction Top automotive vehicle manufacturers (2000)(top 14 manufacturers account for 87% of worldwide production) Source: Automotive News Datacenter - 2001 Suzuki3,0%Mitsubishi2,8%BMW1,7%Others13,5%Renault4,1%Honda4,2%Fiat4,6%Nissan4,4%Hyundai4,2%PSA group4,7%GM14,2%Ford12,4%Toyota9,9%VW group8,6%Daimler-Chrysler 7,8%2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 16 Introduction Automotive electronic equipment revenue forecast CAGR = 6.6% (20022006) 01020304050607080901002003 2004 2005 2006B$Other AutoRemote/Keyless EntryClimate Control unitAirbagsDashboard Instr.Auto StereoGPSABSEngine Control units05101520252003 2004 2005 2006B$Automotive semiconductor consumption forecast CAGR = 13.2% (20022006) Source : Dataquest December 2002 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 17 Introduction Total semiconductor market(US$B) 0501001502002503002001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Military/Aero(3%)CAGR=8% (2002-06)Industrial(7%)CAGR=12% (2002-06)Automotive(8%)CAGR=13% (2002-06)Consumer(17%)CAGR=15% (2002-06)Communications(24%)CAGR=14% (2002-06)Data Processing(41%)CAGR=12% (2002-06)Source : Dataquest November 2002 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 18 IntroductionInterior Light System Auto toll Payment Rain sensor Dashboard controller Automated Cruise Control Light failure control Information Navigation Entertainment Head Up Display Engine:

Injection control Injection monitor Oil Level Sensing

Air Flow Headlight: Position control Power control Failure detection Brake Pressure

Airbag Sensing &ControlSeat control:Position/Heating Key transponder Door module Keyless entry

Central locking Throttle control Valve Control E-gas Suspension control LED brake light Compass Stability Sensing Power Window Sensor Backup Sensing Gearbox: Position control Where do we find electronics in a car 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 19 IntroductionElectronics are distributed all over the car-body Distributed supply used for both power drivers and low power control systemsdirect battery supply for the modules: high-voltage with large variationTrend: Battery voltage from 12V 42V large supply transients due to interferences of high-power users switching or error condition (load-dump) Trend: comparable supply transients, lower load-dump transient2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 20 Introduction Modules, distributed over the car-body have to comply with stringent EMC and ESDlow EME to other modules and external world low EMS (high EMI) for externally and internally generated fieldsHigh ESD and system-ESD requirementsTrend: increasing EMC frequency and EMC field strength for the module.Trend: increasing ESD voltages and power Trend: more integration brings the module border closer to the chip border : the chip has to comply with higher EMC field strengths and ESD power. 2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Environment slide: 21 Introduction Modules on all locations in the car, close to controlled sensors and actuatorslarge temperature range: - 40 +150C ambientTrend: increasing ambient temperature Critical car-functions controlled by electronicsSafety & reliability very importantTrend: increasing safety and reliability requirementsCommunication speed and reliabilityTrend: higher speed, lower/fixed latency, higher reliability and accident proof communications2004 11 29 AID-EMC / HC / Electronic Circuits in an Automotive Envi