Automatic Sprinkler Control System

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Transcript of Automatic Sprinkler Control System

Automatic Sprinkler Control System

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION

Now days, water shortage is becoming one of the biggest problem in the world. Many different methods are developed for conservation of water. We need water in each and every field. In our day to day life also water is essential. Water is considered to be basic need of human. Water is needed for everyone human beings, animals, plants, etc. Agriculture is one of the fields where water is required in tremendous quantity. Wastage of water is major problem in agriculture. Every time excess of water is given to the fields. There are many techniques to save or to control wastage of water from agriculture. Sprinkler System In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solidset irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle. Guns are similar to rotors, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging. Sprinklers can also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water source by a hose. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and cemeteries unattended. Most of these utilize a length of polyethylene tubing wound on a steel drum. As the tubing is wound on the drum powered by the irrigation water or a small gas engine, the sprinkler is pulled across the field. When the sprinkler arrives back at the reel the system shuts off. This type of system is known to most people as a "water-reel" traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively for dust suppression, irrigation, and land application of waste water. Other travelers use a flat rubber hose 1

Automatic Sprinkler Control System that is dragged along behind while the sprinkler platform is pulled by a cable. These cable-type travelers are definitely old technology and their use is limited in today's modern irrigation projects.

NEED OF AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION:Water conservation is the main reason for an auto-irrigation system. Every inch of your property will have even coverage and distribution of water. The watering will be timed and calibrated so there will be no wasted water, giving you a green lawn and saving you money. Watering in the early morning allows for peak water pressure. The time of day is very important. Our systems start around 3 a.m. and run until about 8 a.m. This eliminates evaporation of water to the sun. Wind is at a day time low so all water lands on target saving you money. Proper irrigation reduces soil temperatures. Many diseases are generated when soils go over 80 degrees. During the late summer, these temperatures are many times exceeded. The system can also be implemented on farms at large scale which would help in increasing the per unit production, with less capital and manpower. It can be used in domestic lawns and gardens also. In Poly and Green Houses also the technique seems beneficial. Thus, they help in enhancing the beauty of a number of landscapes and lawns and also help in saving gallons of water. It is the solution to the biggest hindrance i.e. water scarcity. The farmer can even pass out specific amount of fertilizers and chemicals to the roots of the plant directly.

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Automatic Sprinkler Control System

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 LITERATURE SURVEY Water is essential for the existence and survival of any life form. Hence human settlements the world over have thrived so long they had enough water for consumption and growing crops that yield food for community. The Indian subcontinent has witnessed many such early settlements that devised their own systems of water harvesting, which could be either from surface water or ground water. In the medieval age areas dominated by feudal system, some of these systems took more scientific form and surprisingly, many of these water extraction storage and conveyance structures are still in use in some parts of the country. In other parts of the country, especially in the hilly and mountainous terrains, the communities have devised certain means of water tapping and transfer systems that have been used for generations to provide water for drinking and agriculture. In fact, even today most of these hilly tracts do not enjoy the benefit of modern irrigation systems and still depend on their age old practices. In India, one may find regions varying in temperature, elevation and rainfall. As a result, the climate is drastically varying from one place to another for example, when that of the northern Himalayan regions is compared with that of the southern coastal regions or the dry western and central regions are compared with the west eastern and north eastern regions. Hence, the methods of traditional systems of water utilization have evolved very differently over the years in different places. The main sources of water have generally been: Utilization of stream and river water Direct tapping of rain water (rain water harvesting) Ground water

In India, normal irrigation technique, which are manually operated are used widely due to its low cost and high profits. Automatic irrigation techniques are not so prevalent here. But various methods like the automatic sprinklers, which are used widely for domestic gardening purpose. These are designed to supply water for a particular period of the day. They are time controlled and therefore time controlled systems are still more popular due to its cheap value. 3

Automatic Sprinkler Control System

In addition to the above there are two more methods they are closed loop and open loop irrigation system. The closed loop type of system requires feedback from one or more sensors. Therefore continuously we have to check the status of the sensors. Therefore closed loop systems require a microcontroller based system which increases the cost of the system to a great extent. But in an open loop system, the operator makes the decision on the amount of water that will be applied and when the irrigation event will occur. This information is controlled y a timer circuit and the water is applied according to the desired schedule. Open loop control systems use either the irrigation duration or a specified applied volume for control purposes. The advantage of open loop systems is their easy working and very less cost. In conventional sprinkler systems the problem arises when we have to add some more extra sprinkler valves. If you have an automatic sprinkler control system, chances are that you are currently using all of its outputs controlling sprinklers. The problem arises when you want to add another sprinkler control solenoid valve. Using this circuit, you can add an expansion module to the controller without upgrading the controller or running new wiring. The circuit is fitted in place of an existing solenoid and allows the controller to switch on two valves (hence two sprinklers) instead of one.

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Automatic Sprinkler Control System

CHAPTER 3 BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig 3.1 Block Diagram

3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION The System is consists of mainly the following Power supply-

The whole circuit is divided into sections - one is timer circuit while other one is control & isolation circuits. The timer circuit requires 24V DC supply voltage while rest of the circuit (for sprinkler valves) requires 24VAC suppl y voltage. For this purpose we require a step down transformer which will step down 230V, 50Hz input suppl y voltage to 24V AC.

Rectifier circuit -

At the output of transformer we get 24V AC voltage, but timer circuit requires DC suppl y. Therefore we will us e a rectifier to convert 24V AC to 24V DC. Here a filter is also required to filter out noise in the input voltage. 5

Automatic Sprinkler Control System

Timer Circuit: - IC 555 is wired as an astable multivibrator producing about 7Hz pulses. 14-Stage Binary Counter:- The 7Hz frequency is fu rther divided by IC CD4020, which is a 14 -stage binary counter to generate 20 minute time delay.

Control circuitry to switch between two the solenoid valves. The optoisolation between control circuit and mains suppl y provid e extra safet y.

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Automatic Sprinkler Control System

CHAPTER 4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION

4.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Fig.4.1 Circuit Diagram

4.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

The whole circuit is divided into to three sections. i. ii. iii. Power suppl y circuit Timer circuit to generate time delay Opto-isolation between control circuit & mains suppl y.

i.

Power suppl y circuit : The circuit requires two t ype of suppl y voltage. 24V AC for the optoisolation and relay circuit and 24V DC to power the timer circuit.

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Automatic Sprinkler Control System a. To get the 24V AC we are using a step down transformer which wil l convert 230V AC to 24V AC voltage. b. The 24V AC from the controller is half-wave-rectified by diode D1 and filtered by capacitors C1 and C2. The rectified DC is fed to the timer circuit through resistor R1 and zener diode ZD1 to produce 12 volts to enable the timer circuit. ii. Timer circuit :In this circuit the two sprinkler valves have