Automatic Bottle Filling System Using Plc Conveyor Model

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A report on automatic liquid filling using plc

Transcript of Automatic Bottle Filling System Using Plc Conveyor Model

  • i

    AUTOMATIC BOTTLE FILLING WATER SYSTEM USING PLC WITH CONVEYOR MODEL

    A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics & Instrumentation)

    Faculty of Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology (Vinayaka Mission University)

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  • ii

    DECLARATION

    I hereby declared that this thesis titled Automatic Bottle Filling Water System Using PLC isthe result of my own effort except as clearly stated in references the source of reference

    Signature :- Name of Author :- ......Date :- .....

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  • iii

    To my beloved father, mother, brother and sister

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  • iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I would like to thank Lord KRISHNA for HIS firm hands in guiding me in the course of completing this thesis writing. It is by HIS grace and mercy that I am able to obtain the research on planning project within such as limited time.

    Second, I would like to express my gratitude and thanks to my Faculty Assistants, Mrs. M.CHITRA & L.Chitra, for his professional guidance, wisdom, endurance, advices motivation and encouragement during his supervision period. Thank you so much for the insights and encouragement she has given to me. Without his patience and valuable assistance, the project and thesis would not have been the same as presented here.

    Besides that, I would like to convey my thanks to my beloved parents, Mr. Umesh Prasad Singh and Mrs. Poonam Singh for the advice and give all support to me in developing this project.

    My fellow friends should also be recognized for their support at various conditions. Their views and tips are useful indeed. Unfortunately, it is not possible to list all of them in this limited space. And last but not least, I am grateful to all my family members.

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  • v

    ABSTRACT

    Nowadays, the application of PLC is widely known and use in this digital world PLCs application is obviously

    applied at the industrial sector. Normally, the PLCs that have been used at the industrial field is usually to control a

    mechanical movement either of the machine or heavy machine in order to create an efficient production and accurate

    signal processing. In this project, a discussion about PLC application will be explained in more details and specified.

    Whereby, a machine that used to prepare automatic filling water into the bottle is fully controlled by the PLC CPM2A,

    which acts as the heart of the system. The system sequence of operation is designed by ladder diagram and the

    programming of this project by using CX-Programmer software. Sensor usually plays its vital part as an input signal

    transmitter for the PLC in this system. During this project sensor has been used to detect the bottle position that move

    along the conveyor belt at the low speed while the machine operates. The input signal that has been sent from the

    sensor to the PLC has being made as a reference. Signal in order to determine the output signal that exactly a same

    with the PLC programming language based on the user requirement. Beside that, the electronics and electric devices

    that usually been controlled by the PLC are like a motor, pump, sensor, conveyor belt, buzzer and the others devices.

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  • vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

    TITLE PAGE iDECLARATION iiDEDICATION iiiACKOWLEDGEMENT iv ABSTRACT vTABLE OF CONTENTS viLIST OF TABLES ixLIST OF FIGURES xLIST OF APPENDIXS xii

    1 BACKGROUND OF PROJECT 1

    1.1 Introduction 11.1.1 Open-Loop Systems 21.1.2 Close-Loop Systems 31.2 Problem Statement 51.3 Project Objective 61.4 Scope of Project 61.5 Implementation of Project 71.6 Thesis Outline 8

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  • 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 10

    2.1 History of PLC 102.2 What is PLC? 122.3 Ladder Logic 132.3.1 Ladder Logic Input 142.3.2 Ladder Logic Output 152.4 Programming 172.5 Operation of PLC 182.6 Time Response 19

    3 METHODOLOGY 22

    3.1 Methodology Overview 223.2 How Does the System Work 243.3 Hardware Design 253.1.1 Conveyor System 253.1.2 Motor 263.1.3 Infrared Sensor 27 Vii CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

    4 ELECTRIC DESIGN 294.1 DC Input 294.2 AC Input 324.3 Relay Output 334.3 Transistor Output 35

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  • 5 PROGRAMMING DEVELOPMENT 37

    5.1 A Systematic Approach of Control System Design 375.2 State Diagram 405.3 Assignment of Inputs and Outputs 415.4 Ladder Diagram 42

    6 FINAL RESULT 44

    6.1 The Prototype 446.2 The Wiring System 466.3 The Hardware Design 47

    7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 49

    7.1 Conclusion 497.2 Future Recommendation 50

    REFERENCES 51APPENDIX 53

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  • viii

    LIST OF TABLES

    TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE

    5.1 Assignment of Inputs. 415.2 Assignment of Outputs. 41

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  • ix

    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIG. No. TITLE PAGES

    1.1 Block diagrams of open-loop system 21.2 Block diagrams of closed-loop system 31.3 Project Flow Chart 72.1 Typical of PLC 122.2 A Simple Relay Controller 142.3 Ladder Logic Inputs 152.4 Ladder Logic Outputs 162.5 A Simple Ladder Logic Diagram 173.1 Design of Project 233.2 Conveyor Design 243.3 DC Motor 253.4 Basic IR receive/transmit 274.1 Output for NPN and PNP sensor 294.2 Internal DC input circuit diagram 304.3 Wiring of AC input 314.4 Internal input circuit diagram 324.5 Wiring of Relay Output 334.6 Internal Relay Output Diagram 334.7 Wiring of Transistor for NPN Type 344.8 Internal Output Circuit Diagram for NPN Type Output 35

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  • 5.1 A Systematic Approach to Programmable Control Design Flow Chart 385.2 State Diagram of the Operation. 395.3 Block Diagram of Plant 405.4 Ladder Diagram 426.1 The system from side view 446.2 The system from top view 446.3 The system from front view 446.4 The PLC electrical wiring system 456.5 The external power supply 456.6 The conveyor system 466.7 The buzzer circuit 466.8 The IR sensor circuit 466.9 The process of the filling water 47

    X LIST OF APPENDICES

    APPENDIX TITLE PAGE

    A Data Sheet of CPM2A 53 B Circuit of IR Emitter and Detector 68

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  • C Data Sheet of LM324 70

    CHAPTER 1

    BACKGROUND OF PROJECT

    1.1 Introduction Control engineering has evolved overtime. In the past, humans were the main method for controlling a system. More recently, electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relay to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls. [1].

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  • PLC has been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant for some time to come. Most of this because of the advantages:-

    Cost effective for controlling complex systems Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control Trouble shooting aids make programminng easier and reduce downtime. Reliaable componnents make these likely to operate for years before failure.

    Control systems are an integral part of modern society.It consists of subsystems and processes assembled for the purpose of controlling the outputs of the processes.There are many numero