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IT 18 031

Examensarbete 30 hp July 2018

Automated Testing of HVDCControl & Protection SystemsA Study on Automated Regression Testing

Arnav Jain

Institutionen fr informationsteknologiDepartment of Information Technology

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Teknisk- naturvetenskaplig fakultet UTH-enheten

Besksadress: ngstrmlaboratoriet Lgerhyddsvgen 1 Hus 4, Plan 0

Postadress: Box 536 751 21 Uppsala

Telefon: 018 471 30 03

Telefax: 018 471 30 00

Hemsida: http://www.teknat.uu.se/student

Abstract

Automated Testing of HVDC Control & Protection Systems

Arnav Jain

Testing is an important activity when developing a system. Testing requires resources in terms of time, labour and money. By correctly automating the tests, the development time may either be shortened or there will be a possibility to run more tests. ABB in Ludvika has developed MACH, a control & protection system for HVDC (high power electrical transmission over long distances) applications. During development of the control & protection system for each HVDC project, which are all unique, the system is today tested manually, which takes considerable time.

This thesis project studies the possibility of automating parts of the MACH system tests, by investigating current testing procedures, the control & protection system itself, and how a test tool may interact with the system. Using this information a test framework, aimed towards test automation, was created, and a simple test execution tool was developed. A new test case, a combination of multiple smaller test cases, ran on the system using the test execution tool.

The outcome proves the proof of concept of automating parts of the system tests. The economics and the scope of the automated testing however, is dependent on how automation is implemented.

Handledare: Raheleh Mahdivand-Avilagh mnesgranskare: Bengt Jonsson Examinator: Justin Pearson

IT 18 031Tryckt av: Reprocentralen ITC

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Automated Testing of HVDC Control & Protection Systems 5

Popular Scientific Summary in Swedish

Nr ett system ska utvecklas r det viktigt att det ven testas, vilket kostarbde arbetstid och pengar. Fr att frska minska ner p de resurser som krvsfr att utfra tester, kan testning automatiseras. Med automatisering menas attett datorprogram utfr idag de uppgifter som en mnniska normalt sett utfr.Automatisering kan leda till att fler tester hinner utfras under en bestmdperiod eller minska ner den tid som behvs fr att utfra samma tester.

P ABB i Ludvika utvecklas system fr elektrisk kraftverfring med hjlp avHVDC (hgspnd likstrm). Kraftstationerna som sammankopplar HVDC sys-temet med det vanliga elntet har ett sofistikerat kontrollsystem som utvecklatsp ABB (MACH). MACH-systemet kontrollerar viktiga funktioner p HVDCkraftstationen, till exempel hur mycket kraft som verfrs, men ven andra funk-tioner p stationen ssom ventilation och reservkraft. D varje HVDC-projektr unikt, behver MACH-systemet anpassas fr varje individuellt projekt. Un-der utvecklingen av MACH-systemet utfrs det tester kontinuerligt, av vilkaalla idag utfrs manuellt.

Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att studera vilka mjligheter som finnsfr att automatisera testningen av MACH-systemet. Detta fr att mjliggramer frekvent testning jmfrt med idag.

Metoden har varit att underska de tester som utfrs idag fr att identifiera vilkatyper av tester som utfrs, och ven identifiera vilka grnssnitt som finns motMACH-systemet fr ett datorprogram. Drefter, genom att anvnda materialetsom tagits fram via underskningen, utveckla en struktur fr hur automatiskatester br utformas, samt skapa en program-prototyp som kan utfra testerautomatiskt.

Efter litteraturstudie och konsultering med anstllda p ABB utvecklades sedanen struktur fr testautomatisering som utgick ifrn att grnssnittet skall varaenkel fr en testare att frst sig p och anvnda. Efter att ett lmpligt sttatt ansluta sig mot MACH-systemet funnits, utvecklades ett datorprogram somkunde tolka enkla instruktioner fr tester och sedan utfra dessa instruktioner.

Fr att utvrdera det utvecklade programmet och strukturen utfrdes ett demon-strationstest dr de olika funktionaliteterna i programmet testades p realistiskatestfall. Dessa visade att det finns mjligheter fr att infra automatisk test-ning p MACH-systemet. Lnsamheten dremot beror p hur den automatiskatestningen implementeras.

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Automated Testing of HVDC Control & Protection Systems 7

Executive Summary

Testing requires resources in terms of time, labour and money. By correctlyautomating tests it may be possible to run regressions tests on large parts ofthe system more frequently, compared to manual testing. Frequent regressiontests are desirable, since they may help to find unexpected defects in the systemin an earlier stage of the development process.

This thesis project studies the possibility of automating parts of testing of theABBs MACH Control & Protection system, starting by investigating threedifferent areas:

1. Todays testing procedure: review what actions that is included in currenttest process to see what is needed in the framework for automated testing.

2. Control & protection system itself: reviewing architecture of the MACH-system and the software that is used.

3. Interfaces that could be used for a test tool to interact with the system.

A literature study in automated testing was made to find a good practice of howan automated testing framework may be structured. Based on the informationfrom the investigation, a framework aimed towards automated testing for MACHwas created. Using the framework, a simple text execution tool was developed,which uses HiBug (an existing protocol at ABB) to interface with the system.

An evaluation was made by creating a demonstrative test case that included acombination a few realistic test cases into one test. The different functionalitiesfrom the framework were implemented in test files and run by the tool. Thedemo showed that there are possibilities to automate the execution of testson the MACH-system. The feasibility of the automated testing however, isdependent on how automation is implemented.

The proposed framework and tool proves a concept of how a test executing toolcan be implemented in practice. There is is still areas left to study in order toreach a complete automated testing procedure e.g. tests including operations onRTDS, automatic test result verification, coordination with a test managementtool.

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Automated Testing of HVDC Control & Protection Systems 9

Foreword

This thesis work has been both captivating and educational. We would like tothank to following persons for their contributions and involvement in this thesisproject.

Raheleh Mahdivand-Avilagh, Archit Singh, & Linlin Wang; who super-vised this project at ABB and offered both guidance and ideas all through-out the project.

Aditya Deb, Ted Persson, and other colleagues at ABBs TK department;for repeatedly answering our unreasonable questions.

Bengt Jonsson, professor at Department of Information Technology; andJuan de Santiago, senior lecturer at Department of Engineering Sciences;our reviewers at Uppsala University for their invaluable feedback duringthe writing of the thesis.

Lastly we would like to thank everyone at ABB who, during our time at theoffice, made it a good working environment.

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Automated Testing of HVDC Control & Protection Systems 11

Table of Contents

Abstract 3

Popular Scientific Summary in Swedish 5

Executive Summary 7

Foreword 9

Abbreviations and Definitions 18

1 Introduction 19

1.1 Statement of Originality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.2 Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.3 Project Purpose and Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.4 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.5 Delimitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2 Background 22

2.1 Systems Development Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.1.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.1.2 Design Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.1.3 Implementation Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.1.4 Testing Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.1.5 Delivery Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.2 Software Testing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.2.1 Test Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.2.2 Verification and Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.2.3 Automated Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.2.4 Regression Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Automated Testing of HVDC Control & Protection Systems 12

2.2.5 Different Types of Regression Testing and Verification Tools 26

2.3 HVDC Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.3.1 HVDC compared to HVAC Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.3.2 HVDC Converter Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.4 MACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2.4.1 M