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Transcript of author unknown address unknown accessed unknown Cell Theory Cell Theory Prokaryotic Cells...

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  • author unknown address unknown accessed unknown Cell Theory Cell Theory Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Membranes Cell Division Cell Division
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  • Institute for Social Marketing http://www.ism.stir.ac.uk/projects_cancer.htm accessed 28.01.08 A. Cell Theory A. Cell Theory B. Cell Size B. Cell Size C. Multicellular Organisms C. Multicellular Organisms D. Stem Cells D. Stem Cells
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  • A. Cell Theory 1. The cell theory states that: a. living organisms are composed of cells b. cells are the smallest unit of life c. cells come from pre- existing cells 2. Evidence for the cell theory is a result of international collaborative efforts_ University of Cincinnati Clermont College http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Cell_Biology/Cells_Lab/CELLS.htm accessed 28.01.08
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  • Click A. Cell Theory 1. The cell theory states that: a. living organisms are composed of cells b. cells are the smallest unit of life c. cells come from pre- existing cells 2. Evidence for the cell theory is a result of international collaborative efforts_ University of Cincinnati Clermont College http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Cell_Biology/Cells_Lab/CELLS.htm accessed 28.01.08 THE NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC THEORIES COULD BE INTRODUCED HERE: THE ACCUMULATION OF EVIDENCE THAT ALLOWS A HYPOTHESIS TO BECOME A THEORY; WHETHER A THEORY SHOULD BE ABANDONED WHEN THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT IT DOES NOT OFFER A FULL EXPLANATION; AND WHAT EVIDENCE IS NEEDED FOR A THEORY TO BE REJECTED OR ADAPTED. Theory of Knowledge TOK
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  • 3. Unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life a. metabolism b. response c. homeostasis d. growth e. reproduction f. nutrition_ California State University, Stanislaus http://arnica.csustan.edu/Biol1010/classification/classification.htm accessed 25.01.08
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  • 1. Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, using the appropriate SI unit a. molecules (1 nm) b. thickness of membranes (10 nm) c. viruses (100 nm) d. bacteria (1 m) e. organelles (up to 10 m) f. most cells (up to 100 m)_ B. Cell Size author unknown address unknown accessed unknown
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  • 1. Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, using the appropriate SI unit a. molecules (1 nm) b. thickness of membranes (10 nm) c. viruses (100 nm) d. bacteria (1 m) e. organelles (up to 10 m) f. most cells (up to 100 m)_ B. Cell Size author unknown address unknown accessed unknown SustainPack http://www.sustainpack.com/nanotechnology.html accessed 28.01.08 SustainPack http://www.sustainpack.com/nanotechnology.html accessed 28.01.08
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  • 1. Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, using the appropriate SI unit a. molecules (1 nm) b. thickness of membranes (10 nm) c. viruses (100 nm) d. bacteria (1 m) e. organelles (up to 10 m) f. most cells (up to 100 m)_ B. Cell Size author unknown address unknown accessed unknown SustainPack http://www.sustainpack.com/nanotechnology.html accessed 28.01.08 SustainPack http://www.sustainpack.com/nanotechnology.html accessed 28.01.08 THE BIOLOGICAL ENTITIES IN THE ADJACENT LIST ARE BEYOND OUR ABILITY TO PERCEIVE DIRECTLY. THEY MUST BE OBSERVED THROUGH THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY SUCH AS THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE AND THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE. IS THERE ANY DISTINCTION TO BE DRAWN BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE CLAIMS DEPENDENT UPON OBSERVATIONS MADE DIRECTLY WITH THE SENSES AND KNOWLEDGE CLAIMS DEPENDENT UPON OBSERVATIONS ASSISTED BY TECHNOLOGY? Theory of Knowledge Click TOK
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  • 2. Cells have an individual three- dimensional nature/shape that should be appreciated_ Internet FAQ Archives http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Hea-Irr/HIV-AIDS.html accessed 28.01.08
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  • 3. An important factor limiting the size of cells is the surface area to volume ratio a. the rate of heat production/waste production/resource consumption of a cell is a function of its volume b. the rate of exchange of materials and energy (heat) is a function of its surface area_ The Voltage Gate http://thevoltagegate.blogspot.com/2007_01_01_archive.html accessed 15.01.09 Play
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  • C. Multicelluar Organisms 1. Multicellular organisms show emergent properties a. emergent properties arise from the interaction of component parts: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts_ University of Winnipeg http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16protis.htm accessed 28.01.08
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  • 2. Cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others (differentiation) a. genes are needed for cells to develop into specialized cells_ Answers.com http://www.answers.com/topic/embryogenesis?cat=health accessed 28.01.08
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  • b. each cell has a copy of every gene c. only the genes that are needed to differentiate are expressed d. once a cells begins to develop along a pathway, it cannot change paths (committed)_ Campbell, Mitchell, Reece Biology, Concepts and Connections 2000
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  • b. each cell has a copy of every gene c. only the genes that are needed to differentiate are expressed d. once a cells begins to develop along a pathway, it cannot change paths (committed)_ Campbell, Mitchell, Reece Biology, Concepts and Connections 2000 MB Scientific http://www.mbscientific.com/1_MorphogenesisGeneAngle.htm accessed 28.01.08 MB Scientific http://www.mbscientific.com/1_MorphogenesisGeneAngle.htm accessed 28.01.08 Click
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  • D. Stem Cells 1. Stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways 2. Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells, for example: a. stem cells were used to restore the insulation tissue of neurons in laboratory rats (2005) b. resulting in subsequent improvements in their mobility_ Public Stem Cell Banking http://publicstemcellbanking.com/ accessed 28.01.08
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  • D. Stem Cells 1. Stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways 2. Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells, for example: a. stem cells were used to restore the insulation tissue of neurons in laboratory rats (2005) b. resulting in subsequent improvements in their mobility_ Public Stem Cell Banking http://publicstemcellbanking.com/ accessed 28.01.08 THIS IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS BALANCING THE HUGE OPPORTUNITIES OF THERAPEUTIC CLONING AGAINST THE CONSIDERABLE RISKSFOR EXAMPLE, STEM CELLS DEVELOPING INTO TUMOURS. ANOTHER ISSUE IS HOW THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY CONVEYS INFORMATION ABOUT ITS WORK TO THE WIDER COMMUNITY IN SUCH A WAY THAT INFORMED DECISIONS ABOUT RESEARCH CAN BE MADE. Theory of Knowledge TOK
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  • A. Structure and Function A. Structure and Function B. Reproduction B. Reproduction author unknown address unknown accessed unknown
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  • 1. Prokaryotic cells are single celled and do not have a nucleus 2. They are small and simple in structure_ A. Structure and Function author unknown address unknown accessed unknown Play
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  • 3. Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an example of a prokaryote a. cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, pili, flagella, ribosomes, and nucleoid (region containing naked DNA)_ author unknown address unknown accessed unknown Play
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  • 3. Know the function of the cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, pili, flagella, ribosomes and nucleoid (region containing naked DNA)_ Designs for Wellbeing http://www.relax-well.co.uk/MRSA-information-10.html accessed 06.02.08 Play
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  • B. Reproduction 1. Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission_ NOVA Science Now http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3401/04-bact.html accessed.6.02.08 Play
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  • D. Comparing Cells D. Comparing Cells E. Extracellular Matrix E. Extracellular Matrix author unknown address unknown accessed unknown A. Overview of the Cell A. Overview of the Cell B. Manufacture & Breakdown B. Manufacture & Breakdown C. Energy, Support, Movement C. Energy, Support, Movement
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  • D. Comparing Cells D. Comparing Cells E. Extracellular Matrix E. Extracellular Matrix author unknown address unknown accessed unknown A. Overview of the Cell A. Overview of the Cell B. Manufacture & Breakdown B. Manufacture & Breakdown C. Energy, Support, Movement C. Energy, Support, Movement author unknown address unknown accessed unknown author unknown address unknown accessed unknown ClickPlay
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  • A. Overview of the Cell 1. An organelle (mini organ) is a discrete structure within a cell and has a specific function 2. General Functions a. manufacture b. breakdown c. energy processing d. support and movement_ The Internet Encyclopedia of Science http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/P/plant_cell.html accessed 29.02.08
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  • B. Manufacture & Breakdown 1. Nucleus- control center a. surrounded by a nuclear envelope b. contains DNA (chromatin) which directs the cells activities c. nucleolus makes ribosom