Australia’s Story

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2. Basic assumptions: Australias story is connected to our story We can learn from the past All humans want/need basically the same things:Food and shelterCommunitySense of belonging and being respectedStructure and order to make sense of life and theworldSense of control over ones destiny 3. Welcome Down Under! 4. Some Stats about Australia Approximate size of the Lower 48 United States Approximate population of Texas (21 million) Seven major cities:Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne, Canberra, Sydney, Brisbane, Darwin Six states plus several island territories Did not gain full independence from England until the 1980s but did sowithout a Revolutionary War 16 hours ahead of Houston 2% of population consists of the people who were there before the British 5. Why do people migrate? Escape over-crowding Wars Draughts and other events that cause famines Curiosity about whats out there in the unexploredworld Promises of a better life in a new place Brought or sent to new lands as servants or slaves byother immigrants 6. Home for Thousands of Years 7. Where did the Aborigines of Australia comefrom? Africa, by way of Asia and the many islands between Australiaand Asia. Probably first entered through Torres Straits betweenAustralia and Papua New Guinea Island hopping during times when sea levels were lower Estimates of when vary from 40,000 to 125,000 years ago Mungo Man oldest remains found to date- 42,000 years old 8. What does the term Aborigine mean? Latin Ab from Origo original or primary Aborigine is the noun Preferred term is currently Aboriginal people or Indigenous Australians 9. What was their life like before the English arrived? Many different groups, speaking 200 to 300different languages and 600 dialects Hunter/gatherers - no farming, permanentsettlements, or live stock Well adapted to using natural world for food,shelter, medicine, clothing Good managers of the land i.e. annual controlledsmall fires to keep undergrowth clear of weeds anddebris 10. Well developed social/spiritual life Land is sacred with special holy places such as treeunder which one was born Cave paintings interpretations of dreams Walk About tradition Well defined system for selecting mates to preservevitality of the group Well established traditions around how to honor thedeceased 11. What brought the English? Loss of American colonies in the late 1700s led to searchfor new lands to colonize James Cook had explored Australia; several settlementswere already established Overcrowding in England was causing problems Prisons were full of petty criminals some arrested forstealing food held to ship when ready Some prisoners had skills useful to establishing a newcolony some young children one age 82! Solve two problems:* Reduce over-crowded prisons in England* Provide free labor to develop new colony in Australia 12. When did the Europeans arrive? Dutch sailors discovered Australia in 1600s, but werent allthat impressed. James Cook explored the region in 1770 Australia Day is celebrated January 26, the anniversary ofthe 1788 arrival of the First Fleet to Sydney Cove Eleven Ships, carrying:1,530 people736 convicts, 17 of their children211 Marines, 27 of their wives, 14 of their children300 officers and staff, led by Arthur Phillips 13. Getting Started Convicts were used as slave labor to establish asettlement First free (non-prisoners) arrived in 1793 motivated by: Free passage Free land Two years worth of provisions including tools and farmsupplies Promise of free labor from the prisoners who were housed inbarracks and also given two years worth of rations andclothing 14. When English and Aboriginals Meet Native population dropped dramatically fromdiseases such as small pox, measles, andTuberculosis One group buried 90% of its population within afew years after First Fleet Languages nearly wiped out50 to 100 are gone;all but 20 are in danger of becoming extinct. Through the 1800s many Aboriginal People diedfrom small pox Appropriation of land and water to graze sheep andcattle continued through first half of 20th century 15. By the mid-1800s scientists were exporting skulls to study human brain development - it was easier to ship the heads without a body attached As early as 1834 the English enlisted the services of the Aboriginal People to track missing English people and help scout out new grazing land and watering holes 16. Treaties and Other Betrayals John Batman, a glazier (rancher) made anagreement with several Aboriginal men nearMelbourne June 6, 1835 to buy land from them Highly unlikely Aboriginal men understand conceptof selling land Treaty voided by Governor of New South Wales a fewmonths later on August 26,1835 Declared Aboriginal people less than fully humanand, therefore, unable to enter into treaties orcontracts. 17. English Whites Only Policies Merge Aboriginal peopleinto white culture for theirown good Control marriages Take children at young ageto raise in white culture Try to urbanize thepopulation Educate children via Schoolof the air programs 18. The Rabbit Proof Fence History One English transplant missed his hunts and imported a dozen rabbits Which reproduced, and reproduced, and reproduced like rabbits 1901 to 1907 constructed a continuous fence from Southern Coast for 1,139 miles to the Northwest area to contain the rabbits and protect crops 19. Film made in 2002, based on the 1996 bookFollow the Rabbit Proof Fence Written by daughter of one ofthe girls in the story 3 girls Mollie, Gracie, andDaisy - ages 8 to 15 walkedfor nine weeks trying to gethome Taken in 1932 from theirfamilies in Jigalong inNorthwest Australia Sent to boarding school2,400 miles away at a NativeSettlement north of Perth 20. English Policy Toward Half-castes Goal: Save the children from lives ofdeprivation, domestic violence, ignorance, andpoverty Train them to be domestic workers, teach themEnglish, control marriages and births so as toeventually absorb the native population into the nowdominant white population Taken from parents by state authorities byforce, assuming parents and children, like domesticanimals, would adjust to the separation 21. The Stolen Generation(s) Late 1800s to mid-1900s 70 years Minimally 1 in 10 children forcibly removed from their families A. O. Neville, the West Australia Chief Protector of Aboriginesfrom 1915 to 1940 Previous policy of breeding out the coloured miscegenation marry them to European men so that within two to threegenerations the blacks would become white Half-caste population grew from 850 in 1903 to 4,245 by 1935 New policies forbid sexual relations between whites andAborigines without permission Even marriage among Aboriginal people required permissionfrom the state 22. Meanwhile, back in England Australia was considered a cluster of self-governing colonies of the UnitedKingdom from the First Fleet in 1788 until 1901 New South Wales (Sydney) Victoria (Melbourne) South Australia (Adelaide) Queensland (Brisbane) Tasmania (Hobart) Northern Territory (Darwin) January 1901, by Royal Assent, Australia moved to a joint governmentrelationship with Britain meaning the reigning monarch was the head ofstate During WWII the English took a beating in Singapore and the Aussiesbegan to look to the US for more support and defense (Darwin was bombedrepeatedly during WWII) 23. In 1942 Australia activated an earlier statue thatgranted authority to enter into treaties and othernegotiations with others of their own accordIn 1986 Australia declared itself a Sovereign,Independent and Federal Nation but the Queen wasstill head of state. However, England could no longermake rules for Australia 24. Back to the challenges of the Whites and the Natives In 1937 the government sent officialsaround Australia to discuss the The report of the 1937 conferenceAboriginal Peoples welfare policies. stated, the destiny of the nativesof aboriginal origin, but not of the How to best absorb mixed-descentfull blood, lies in their ultimatepeople into the mainstreamabsorption by the people of theAustralian population.Commonwealth and it thereforerecommends that all efforts be Give the children newdirected to that end. Policy-names, making it difficult, if notmakers expected that mixed-impossible for parents and children descent Aborigines wouldto find one another.assimilate. They thought that thewhite blood in mixed- descentAborigines enabled them to be Deal with the rising problems ofeducated in European ways.alcoholism, domesticviolence, poverty, unemployment, failure to adapt, etc. 25. The Times, They Were A-Changing As Australia was becoming a nation of itsown, policies and attitudes toward the AboriginalPeople were also shifting As European-descendent Australians learned moreabout earlier policies, momentum grew for changeand reform The Civil Rights movement in the 1960s here stirredsome of the Aboriginal people into action 26. Were Sorry The Prime Minister was urged to issue an official apology for the treatment of the past. John Howard refused to do so. In 2008 Prime Minister won the vote partially by promising to issue an official apology. It was issued February 13 27. Rudds Apology February 13, 2008To the mothers and fathers, to the brothers and sisters wesay sorry. And for the indignity and degradation on aproud people and a proud culture we say sorry."There is nothing I can say today that will take away thepain... Words are not that powerful,(This is) the start of a new approach towards Aborigineswhich includes helping them find their lostfamilies, closing pay gaps and a 17-year difference in lifeexpectancy between Aborigines and white Australians."The mood of the nation is for reconciliation now. 28. Two WorldsReconciling