Australian Demographics oPopulation: 20,600,856 oMost people are 15-64 years old oLife expectancy:...

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  • Australian Demographics

    Population: 20,600,856Most people are 15-64 years oldLife expectancy: Male: 78 years old Female: 83 years oldEthnic Groups: White 92%, Asian 7%, Aboriginal and other 1%Religions: Catholic 26.4%, Anglican 20.5%, Other Christians 20.5%, Buddhist 1.9%, Muslim 1.5%Language: English 79.1%Literacy Rate: 99%Government Type: Federal parliamentary democracyUnemployment Rate: 4.4%

  • History 68,000 BC 40,000 BC ~ Aboriginal tribes arrive1606 ~ Dutch spot Australian mainland1770 ~ English Lieutenant James Cook explores Eastern coast and claims it for Britain1778 ~ First fleet from England arrives and founded first European settlement and colony at Sydney1808 ~ The Rum Rebellion1829 ~ The whole of Australia is claimed as British territory1891 ~ First attempt at Federal Constitution is drafted1891 ~ Severe depression1898 ~ The convention agrees on a final draft1901 ~ Australia becomes a Federation

  • History cont. 1902 ~ Franchise Act guarantees women the right to vote 1903 ~ High Court of Australia is established 1914 ~ Takes part in WWI 1939 ~ Australia enters WWII 1950 ~ Korean War 1963 ~ Indigenous Australians are given full rights as citizens 1972 ~ The first Labor Government is elected since 1942 under the leadership of Gough Whitlam 1987 ~ Hoddle Street Massacre and Queen Street Massacre 1999 ~ A referendum to changing to a Republic is unsuccessful 2007 ~ Labor Party elected Kevin Rudd is PM

  • Aborigines Aborigine: People who were here from the beginning Account for 2% of Australias population Migrated from somewhere in Asia around 30,000 years ago Believe in a close relationship between humans and land By the late 1880s most Aborigines had joined the white, rural and urban communities Land and property rights fueled an important civil rights movement in the 1970s Aborigines spoke out for land rights that had been taken by British settlers

  • Executive Branch Chief of State: Queen of Australia Elizabeth II who is represented by Governor General Major General Michael Jeffery Head of Government: Prime Minister Kevin Rudd Deputy Prime Minister: Julia Gillard Cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the government general to serve as government ministers Elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general

  • Prime Minister Kevin RuddMost powerful political office in AustraliaAlways the leader of the political with the majority in the HouseKevin Rudd is the leader of the Labor PartyKnocked out John Howard (PM 1996-2007)The Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor GeneralHas a Cabinet and a Federal Executive CouncilCan be voted out by a vote of no confidence

  • The Governor GeneralThe representative in Australia of the British monarchCurrently Michael Jeffery representing Queen Elizabeth IIExercises supreme executive powerAppoints ministers, ambassadors and judgesGives royal assent to legislationPresident of the Federal Executive CouncilActs only on the advice of the Prime Minister of AustraliaMostly a ceremonial role

  • Preferential Voting Voters rank a list or group of candidates in order of preference Voter writes #1 by first choice, #2 by second, etc. Used in instant run-off voting and single transferable vote system

  • Legislative Branch Bicameral Federal Parliament Consists of the Senate and House of Representatives Most Recent Election Results: SenateLiberal Party-National Party coalition 37 Australian Labor Party, 32Australian Greens, 5Family First Party, 1Other, 1 House of RepsAustralian Labor Party, 83Liberal Party, 55National Party, 10Independents, 2

  • Parliament House of Reps.House of Rep (150)3 year termRepresent a separate electoral division instant run-off votingThe party with majority support in the House forms the governmentMembers may have other functions in the ParliamentHave a Question TimeThey are involved in law making, committee work and in representing their electors

  • Parliament - SenateSenate (76)12 elected for each State and 2 for each territoryState senators 6 year term and Territory senators 3 year termProportional representation single transferable voteIn order for a bill to become a law, must agree with HouseHighly developed committee systemSenators spend much time on committee work

  • Parties of Australia Australian Labor Party Liberal Party The Nationals Australian Democrats Australian Greens One Nation

  • Australian Labor PartyOldest political party formed in 1890Continuously represented in the House since 1901Experienced 3 splits and in turn lost seats in the ParliamentA lot of government spending for businessesPro Union

  • Liberal Party of AustraliaFormed in 1910Liberal party has governed in coalition with the National Party for 36 of the last 52 yearsEconomy is based on private economy, free enterprise and competitive marketsGovernment should not provide services that can be better delivered by competitive enterpriseLimited governmentSimilar to American Republican Party

  • The NationalsOriginally known as the Country PartyHas held seats in Parliament since 1919Rural-based partyBelieve in security for the nationWant strong economy built on private industrySeek better health careSupport Australian farming

  • Australian DemocratsFormed in 1977 by Don ChippMost successful minor political partyHave elected 5 different women as leadersWant uniform healthcare systemIn favor of tax increaseExpenses paid educationVery concerned about the environment

  • Australian GreensThe newest party, launched in 1992

    Started because of environmental conflict in the 1980s

    Big emphasis on environment

    Health care and human rights platforms are abundant

    Emphasis on farming and agricultural development

  • One NationRepresenting the people of Australia who are concerned that their will is being ignored by the two-party system

    Global warming is not an issue

    Focus on foreign affairs

  • Judicial BranchHighest court is the Australian High CourtChief Justice and 6 other Justices are appointed by the Governor GeneralCommon Law systemThere are 3 other Federal courts:The Federal Court of AustraliaThe Family Court of AustraliaThe Federal Magistrates Court The High Court has judicial review and interprets the Constitution of AustraliaAll Federal judges and magistrates can serve until they are 70 years oldThe High Court was constituted by the Judiciary Act of 1903

  • The BureaucracyNot the strongest part of the government in Australia

    Many civil service offices are present but they arent very well represented

    The Australians dont seem to like the bureaucracy very much

  • Economy of AustraliaGDP is on par with the four dominant Western European economiesExtremely strong currencyAgricultural products are main exportsBudget has been in surplus since 2002 due to strong revenue growthUnemployment rate 4.4%Main industries are mining, industrial and transportation equipment, and food processingCurrency is the called the Australian Dollar

  • Political CultureBritish influence is extremely importantVoter turn out is high due to fining if one does not participate in votingWomen received the right to vote in the nations historyDecline of cleavagesThe biggest cleavages are class and genderAustralians do believe that women should have equal rightsMost Australians support their government and what it doesThe Question Time for the government helps to improve legitimacy and trust from the people

  • Foreign PolicyLarge supporters of the U.S.Close ties with BritainTend to take the side of Britain during wartimeMain goal is to start new relationships with other countries and develop coalitions of mutual interestsLooking to form free trade agreements with Singapore, Thailand, and the U.S.The ANZUS Treaty says that Australia and the U.S. are allies during wartimeWorking to expand securityMany goals for the South-Pacific region

  • Australian Capital TerritoryIt is the capital territory of the Commonwealth of AustraliaIts the smallest self-governing internal territoryIt is an inland enclave in New South WalesConceived during the federation conventions of the late 1800sFollowing the Federation of 1901, land would be given to the new Federal GovernmentThe capital is Canberra, since 1913

  • Electoral Map of New South Wales & the ACT Liberal Party (LP) Australian Labor Party (ALP) National Party (NP) Independent (IND) Northern Territory Country Liberal Party (CLP)

  • Australian Defence ForceEstablished in 1976Consists of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, and the Royal Australian Air ForceRelatively small but its the largest military in Oceania Their priority is to maintain the capability to defend Australian territoryWorking with other countries on peace keeping operationsContribute to international coalitions of forces outside of Australias immediate region