Auger 2015

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Auger 2015. Foi o Ruben que fez o template mas eu ajudei -o no início …. Lisboa, April 2012 Jornadas LIP. Cosmic Rays in 1912. Cosmic Rays in 2001. 100 years This year!!. Cosmic Rays. 1 particle / km 2 /century. d. Pierre Auger Observatory. Hybrid Detector 1600 Detectors - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Auger 2015

Slide 1

Lisboa, April 2012Jornadas LIPAuger 2015

Foi o Ruben que fez o template mas eu ajudei-o no incio

Cosmic Rays in 191222Hess at start of balloon flight

Cosmic Rays in 20013100 years This year!!3Hess at start of balloon flightCosmic Rays4

1 particle / km2/centuryd

Pierre Auger ObservatoryHybrid Detector1600 Detectors (Water tanks Cherenkov)In a 1500m gridCovered area = 3000 km227 (24+3) fluorescence telescope

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radio antennasolar panelbattery boxGPSelectronicsPMTpurified watervertical muonPMTTank full of waterThe detectors

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High energy collisions!!!Too much Muons!!!Position of the Shower Maximum different from expected!Xmax8

FepHeavy nuclei ? No simple model to explain it Wrong Physics models ?N9N ~ E0.95

N10

The challenge...11

Mass compositionHadronic modelsXmaxNIncrease information12How can we improve our knowledge?More statistics (just waiting) wont solve it!Need better!

em profilemuonic profileBetter e.m. ProfileBetter FDBetter muon info.Auger 2015Increase InformationHigher performance of existing detectorsIntroduce new detectors13Better FD14Towards a FS with SiPMCollaboration LIP, Aachen, MPI, Granada, Palermo, to develop a SiPM based Focal SurfacePMT typ. peak PDE 25%SiPM could reach ~60%

Measurement of a Dolgoshein prototype

Better FD15Towards a FS with SiPMCollaboration LIP, Aachen, MPI, Granada, Palermo, to develop a SiPM based Focal Surface

Readout Electronics1m2 105 channels compact electronics

Main Options:Digital Photon CountingSignals digitized earlyData transmitted by high-speed linksModular scalable design

High Speed

L1

L1

L1L2L2L2

L164 low impedance preamplifier Variable gain for each channelMinimum threshold at 100% trigger efficiency: 10 fC 64 logic trigger outputs 12 bits ADC (serial output: pedestal and maximum per channel)

Frontend Readout ASICBaseline OptionASIC MAROC3 (2009)

Orsay Microelectronics Group Associated17

DAQ and Trigger ArchitectureBetter muon information19

Add an aditional layer for the muons...e.g. RPCs under the tanks

Better muon information20Add an aditional layer for the muons...e.g. RPCs under the tanks

R&D in Coimbra for RPC chambers for AugerBetter muon information21Add an aditional layer for the muons...e.g. RPCs under the tanksElectronics based on the MAROC ASIC

RPC signalMAROC digital outputMAROC analog sum

CRIVO22

A small Cosmic Ray detectorArray of scintillatorsInstalled at DF-IST rooftopUnder calibration...Next: Install RPCsProton cross-section23

We have to do it at higher energies

Lisboa, April 2012Jornadas LIPFoi o Ruben que fez o template mas eu ajudei-o no incio

Thank you.The Biggest accelators give access to Particle Physics @ 100 TeV scaleENDNumber of muons26

Inclined events

Multivariate and Universality

A significant excess of Muons is observed that can not be explained by composition aloneN ~ E095The results What?27

Xmax distributions28

Ground arrayFluorescence TelescopeCherenkov TelescopeSpace TelescopeExtensive Air ShowersThe results How many?29

30The detectors: Fluorescence Detector

The detectors: Fluorescence Detector31

Time TraceLight profileThe results How many?32

Ankle

GZK like suppression !!!pg 2.7KN

The results from where?33

28 out of 84 correlateVernon-Cetty-Vernon AGN catalog

ObservablesPrimary particle is infered through the shower behaviorXmax, Signal at ground...High energy Hadronic InteractionsRule the shower developmentLarge uncertaintiesExtrapolation from accelerator data (forward region)New phenomena? E=1019 eV ( )Multivariate analyses

Proton / Iron ?

Hadronic InteractionsXmax ---Particles at ground ---34

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Data and SimulationPierre Auger Observatory Data

Average Xmax and its fluctuationsNumber of muons at groundSimulationCONEX (50 000 shower per energy per primary)QGSJET-II.03

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and RMS(Xmax)36

and RMS(Xmax)LightHeavy5Number of muons at groundVertical ShowersMuon deficit in EAS simulations for ALL hadronic interaction models even considering iron primariesIndication of incorrect description of high energy hadronic interactionsN is also sensitive to compositionInclined Showers6

Exploring possible Scenarios7Mass Composition Scenarios (bimodal)Pure Proton to pure IronMixed Composition to IronChange on Hadronic interaction physicsCross-section increaseIn line with many other works

Here considering only simple and extreme scenariosExploring possible Scenarios8Mass Composition Scenarios (bimodal)Pure Proton to pure IronMixed Composition to IronChange on Hadronic interaction physicsCross-section increase

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fractionBut if just proton and iron...

9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction9But if just proton and iron...

: iron fraction ; (1-): proton fraction

9Xmax RMS 100% p 100% Fe Mean10

Xmax RMS 100% p 100% Fe MeanN 10

Exploring possible Scenarios11Mass Composition Scenarios (bimodal)Pure Proton to pure IronMixed Composition to IronChange on Hadronic interaction physicsCross-section increase

Xmax

RMS 50% Fe 100% Fe Mean12

Xmax

RMS 50% Fe 100% Fe Mean

Pure proton to ironMixture to ironS. Ostapchenko, ICRC 2011QGSJet-II.04Xmax 12

Xmax

RMS 50% Fe 100% Fe MeanN 1350% Fe at E = 1018 eV Xmax N

N has a clear separated maxima even for 30% resolution in a event-by-event basis 14Use AMIGA to measure N distributionE = 1018 eVUse Surface DetectorInclined events?Before the transitionCompromise between efficience and statistics

Calibration point

AMIGA15Calibration point

Use AMIGA to measure N distributionE = 1018 eVUse Surface DetectorInclined events?Before the transitionCompromise between efficience and statistics

SD1560Exploring possible Scenarios16Mass Composition Evolution (bimodal)Pure Proton to pure IronMixed Composition to IronChange on Hadronic interaction physicsCross-section increase

X

Xmax distributionsR. Ulrich = + RMS2(Xmax) = RMS2(X1) + RMS2(X)17

Interpretation of the RMS(Xmax) in terms of cross-section

A dramatic increase in the proton-Air cross-section around

If just proton If just proton...R.Ulrich18

Xmax RMS 100% proton Increase MeanN

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R. Conceio, J. Dias de Deus, M. Pimenta, arXiv:1107.0912 [hep-ph]

Black DiskA fast transition to the black disk at s ~ 100 TeV can accommodate about 80% increase in the total cross-section without violating the Froissart boundGrey disk model

20R

R. Conceio, J. Dias de Deus, M. Pimenta, arXiv:1107.0912 [hep-ph]

Black DiskA fast transition to the black disk at s ~ 100 TeV can accommodate about 80% increase in the total cross-section without violating the Froissart boundGrey disk model20R

Xmax RMS 100% proton Increase MeanN 21

RMS2(Xmax) = RMS2(X1) + RMS2(X) Above ~ 1019.4 eV there is no sensivity to Sensitivity to the increase of

X22New physics would also change particle productionInelasticity, multiplicityThis would affect but mainly its fluctuationsAverage number of muons should also change less than its fluctuations (RMS)

RMS2(Xmax) = RMS2(X1) + RMS2(X)Impact of new physics23

Old PhysicsNew PhysicsSummaryMass compositions and Hadronic interaction must be analyzed togetherMulti-variable analyzes needed (Xmax, N)Mass Composition simple scenariosA pure proton pure iron model does not explain simultaneously the and RMS(Xmax) data50% proton pure iron is a possibilityCan be identified by looking to the N distribution at lower energies (E = 1 EeV)Intermediate masses is also a possibilityAstrophysical input can help to constrainHadronic interactionsHave to be changed in any caseWith 100% proton a cross-section change can explain Xmax evolutionCan be identified by checking N evolution with energy (both average and RMS)

24BACKUP SLIDESGlauber

If % p > 20%, % He < 25%Proton-proton cross-sectionSlightly lower than expected by most of the models but in good agreement with recent LHC data

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Xmax distributionsNew analysis with different approaches confirm the results on XmaxAnti-bias cutMC efficienciesAs the energy increases the distributions become narrower73Results presented at the ICRC 2011, BeijingN ~ E0.95Data analysis reveals a muon deficit in the simulationsEven for iron induced showersHigh energy hadronic interaction models are not able to describe the dataNo visible structure

Number of muons (Inclined)

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(Xmax) : iron ; (1-): protonNot possible to have just a two component model !G. Wilk, Z. Wlodarczyk(J. Matthews, V. Scherini)

But if just proton and iron75Interpretation of the RMS(Xmax) in terms of cross-sectionA dramatic increase in the pro