Budget cuts are no longer to be considered a merely temporary accident, so we have to face the fact that ours is now a post-affluent society, where vast primadonna-like museal programmes (and architectures) are going to be a thing of the past, and sustainability, as well as vernacular architectures, are the things we should take into focus. This also means downsizing infrastructures and tools. In documentation and communication - of single artefacts, collections, and museum programmes - we can consider the role of humbler (and less expensive) tools. Like social upheaval dissemination in the Maghreb and in the Middle East has effectively demonstrated, a smartphone can be a very powerful tool. If we think of the fact that museum professionals are very often already networked, we can easily imagine a new, lighter and less expensive process of collections documentation, based on already existing know-how. This presentation has been prepared for a meeting organized by ICOM and the City of Bologna Museums Authority, focused on the preservation of virtual memories (19 May 2011). Further details about the meeting can be found on twitter at #memorievirtuali. If not stated otherwise, all pictures are by the author.
Audiovisual Archives for a Light Museum Notes on a sustainable development model Alessandro Califano ICOM Italy - Commissione Tematica Audio-Visivi e Nuove tecnologie Istituzione Musei del Comune di Bologna preserving virtual memories Bologna, 19 May 2011
Museums How and Why
The failure to ask why museums do what they do discourages self-critical reflection, which is prerequisite to heightened awareness, organizational alignment and social relevance.
Instead, the focus is largely on the how, or the clichd processes of collecting, preserving and earning revenue the latter being the cause of much of the organizational drifting characteristic of many contemporary museums.
[ Robert R. Janes, Museums in a Troubled World: Renewal, Irrelevance, or Collapse? p. 16 ]
A Difficult Context
Commercialization of Cultural Heritage
A (post-)affluent Society
Cultural Heritage as an income-generating asset: a error in logic
Great events, blockbuster exhibitions, international loans
and not enough consideration to value adding actions, and to preventive conservation (ICOM)
Budget Cuts A Widespread Reality
Italy budget cuts to cultural heritage preservation and restoration:
335 million in 2004
102 million in 2011
[ VII Federculture Report (12 May 2011) ]
Canada Museums Assistance Fund cut by 25% twice in the last few years ( 44 % in total)
[ John McAvity, MUSE, May/June 2011, p.6 ]
A (post-)Affluent Society
We live in a society with a (too) high consumption of not renewable resources, and a (too) high degree of refuse production
We shifted from the monument as a museum to the museum as a monument
British Museum, Louvre, Uffizi vs. Calatrava (Milwaukee 2001), Gehry (Bilbao 1997), Libeskind (Berlino 2001)
Into the future - USA
Art Museum (Extension), Milwaukee a large bird taking off over Lake Michigan, a new dramatic landmark of great urban and emotional impact (photos: left by Philip Greenspun, right by rycam.net)
[Santiago Calatrava , 2001]
Industrial archaeology Germany (1)
Museum im Kulturspeicher, W rzburg an old (1901?) silo , its outside mostly untouched , reused as a heritage container.
[Brckner & Brckner , 2002]
Industrial archaeology Germany (2)
Museum im Kulturspeicher, W rzburg the exhibition space is in self-supporting concrete boxes, the lobby keeps its old wooden structure
[Brckner & Brckner , 2002]
A provoking thought
We have been building expensive museums, and have to spend almost as much to try protecting artefacts from light and variations in temperature
The glass-and-concrete art museum in Tashkent an ineffective fight against summer heat
The Savitsky Museum (Nukus) and the Archaeological Museum (Termez) the effectiveness of a vernacular architecture approach
Afghanistan the setting (1)
Bamiyan power is guaranteed (but just to a few) by generators and storage batteries
Afghanistan the setting (2)
Panjsher working to complete the first hydroelectric plant in the whole valley (2008)
Afghanistan the setting (3)
The Salang Tunnel (3400 m) is the only connection letting tankers down to Kabuls high plateau
Kabul, the National Museum of Afghanistan
With no heating, hygrometric control systems, or access to the internet, the museum (ice-cold in winter) is fresh in the summer.
Rethinking a Museum
Three are the main points to consider:
To care for artefacts protection and documentation
To limit expenses/energy consumption
To implement new services and augment visibility
and these points are not necessarily contradictory!
Energy Saving and Artefacts Protecting Measures
With the substitution of neon and incandescence lights with LEDs we can achieve up to over 90% of energy saving, while both heat and lux affecting the artefacts are very effectively kept under control.
New Technologies: Strength & Weakness
ITC infrastructures for land lines are very scanty, but mobile and smart phones are widespread
A majority of the under-30 aged museum professionals are on Facebook
Similarly to what happens in the M.O., the Maghreb, in Egypt, or Iran, in Kabul, too, e-mails and social networks do run on mobile phones
Documentation and Communication (1)
We have to make best use of this generally available tool, adapting our internal documentation procedures, in order to set up a first, basic, rather inexpensive documentation campaign of museum artefacts and events.
Documentation and Communication (2)
Beyond the use of photographic documentation for single artefacts or contexts (left, Durga head from Ghazni; right, Indo-Greek sculpture in Tepe Naranj), smartphones can be used for many other purposes
Documentation and Communication (3)
for instance, preparing audiovisual documentation of an exhibition, or a restoration (here, the preparation of a 1:10 model of the Ghaznevid Lashkari Bazar arch at the National Museum of Afghanistan in Kabul).
Documentation and Communication (4)
Discussing about an early 20th century necklace from Afghanistan, kept at the Ethnographic department of the National Museum in Kabul, at a UNESCO workshop. The director of the museum in Khost, Habib Mohammad Mandozai talks to conservator and curator.
Kabul, National Museum of Afghanistan (15 May 2010).
Documentation and Communication (5)
At the same time, much older technologies can easily be integrated with new ones a potters wheel, for instance, to obtain series of images or videos of not too bulky artefacts.
From sharing pictures on Facebook to the dissemination of images about a museums collections there is but a short way to go.
Documentation and Communication (6)
Duplication (on-site / off-site) such a visual archive carrying both pictures and videos has very contained costs.
Moreover, next to limiting the risk of losing data, or seeing them deteriorated by time, it will eventually make migration to different platforms and standards easier.
Documentation and Communication (7)
There will of course be some culturally specific issues:
Women voices will be more likely on audio than on audiovisual documentation.
Background voices commenting slide presentations or videos will be more frequent than in some other cultures.
However, the inherent difficulties notwithstanding, and in a different cultural frame, there is no reason why we shouldnt think a quick development of adequate and satisfactory documentation and communication strategies to be perfectly possible also in Afghanistan.
...Tashakor! Thank you.
A nation stays alive when its culture stays alive Kabul, Nazional Museum of Afghanistan (2010)