Audience Profile & Theory

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This is a theory which strongly suggests that the audiences are not passive consumers as they actively take part in the media they consume. Blulmer and Katz devised the following list:

DIVERSION when the audiences escape from everyday problems and routines.

PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS using the media for emotional uses and other interactions.

PERSONAL IDENTITY finding yourself reflected in texts, learning behaviour and values from texts.

SURVEILLANCE- information which could be useful for living e.g.; weather reports, financial news or holiday bargains.


MAINSTREAMERS : they go with the flow and dont want to stand out.

ASPIRERS: they want more money and status, buy flashy products and the latest products send out this message.

SECCEEDERS: they spend their money on status goods reflecting their success.

INDIVIDUALISTS/ QUIRKLES: they want to show the world they are different.

REFORMERS: they look for the organic, the recyclable, the environmentally friendly

Stuart hall : Encoding/Decoding

Encoding: the message /idea created by the creator of the text.

Decoding: the message interpreted / received by the consumer / audience.

Besides from that Hall argued that the message is not fixed / determined by the sender, the meaning is never transparent and the audiences is not a passive recipient of meaning.

Stuart Hall
Audience Reception Theory

Preferred reading : the dominant view and what the creator wants you to see.

Oppositional reading: the complete opposite reading to what the creator had intended.

Negotiated reading: an understanding of the dominant reading but can also see it from other perspectives.

Aberrant reading: completely reject the product and have no view at all.

Ien Ang

Ien Ang linked the dominant ideology of mass culture with social debate.

She believed that even if audiences found a show trivial, they could create some kind of cultural discussion based around the idea.

She encouraged readers to become negotiated readers.

GRS- General Registrar Scale

A Higher managerial, administrative, professional (e.g. : chief, lawyer, doctor, architect, judge, optician, accountant).

B intermediate managerial, administrative, professional (e.g. : nurse, bank manager, teacher, police officer).

C1- supervisory, clerical, junior managerial (shop floor supervisor, cashier, secretary, bank clerk, estate agent).

C2- skilled manual workers (e.g. : electrician, carpenter, plumber, banker, hairdresser).

D- semi skilled and unskilled manual workers (factory worker, bin collectors, messenger, bar attendant).

E casual labourers, pensioners, unemployed (students, pensioners without private pension, those on benefits).


Mosaic Classifications demonstrate a much more varied and specific way of defining audiences. This is only one part of it, as I thought it would be most useful for my chosen music videos. Besides, from that I decided to introduce the mosaic along side with GRS because its more detailed, allowing me to make more accurate conclusions about the audience profiles.

Beyonc Yonc &
Ed Sheeran - Sing



The music video titled Yonce strongly focuses around young women, exposing their bodies throughout the video. This is the main purpose / concept of the clip. This creates clear assumptions of the audience s gender and age profiles. The models are portrayed in a sexual manner, creating a stereotypical image of sexually objectified woman. This links to the theory of John Berger Men look, women appear. The representation of women suggests that the audience of the video would be mostly based around male gender, from male teenagers to middle aged man. At the same time it can be argued, as being appealing to the sexual appearance of women can be inspirational for young girls who want to follow the stereotypical and attractive image of women, meaning they could also be the potential audience. The fact that Beyonce is a mainstream artist, allows us to view the audience as mixed, depending on particular clip and message. However, this specific video is directly linked to mans gender from teenage years +. This can be linked to Laura Mulveys theory of male gaze where woman are portrayed from mens perspective due to the sexualisation within the video. Besides, from that the product might be also viewed by woman as a creation used for personal identity development, as suggested by Uses and Gratification theory.


This particular music video particularly focuses around the black race, as suggested from the screen shots. Throughout the video the audience is exposed to the representation of black woman who are continuously objectified and sexualised, strongly reflecting the colonist view of black women from the past. This builds up stereotypical representations, meaning they are passed on to the audience, in this case possibly the black race due to the black majority exposed within the video. However, the fact that Beyonce is a mainstream artist who reaches to a wide range of audiences, suggests that many different races of people could be potential consumers.

Similarly to the audiences race, the occupation could be based around the entire General Registrar Scale, due to the artists popularity and mainstream approach of music. However, looking at this specific video the audience would be based between the E to C1 section due to their young age. The occupation jobs would include: students, bar attendants, hairdressers, secretaries or supervisors.

The low set occupations can be also suggested through the blur of race and class suggested by Stuart Hall, meaning that a particular race in this case black is often associated with particular class. Due to the historical background. Black culture is often related with lower class, meaning their occupation status would be also low.


Following the previous slide, the music video focuses around the lower to middle General Registrar Scale due to the fact that the video is aimed at youth males and females upwards. This means that their demographic is most likely to be based between E and C1 class that include following careers: electrician, carpenter, plumber, banker, hairdresser, factory worker, bin collectors, messenger, bar attendant or students. The lower class audience profile can be also supported through the screenshots which empathize estate environments including old brick walls, fences and pavements. The psychographic profile of the audience is based around mainstreamers who tend to go with the flow and trends set by the celebrities. Aside, from that I think the female side of the audience would fit more within the aspires section as their approach would be to follow the intrigue appearance of the artists.


Looking at the screen shots on the right we can infer that the geo-demographic of the audience is focused around urban estates. The audience is less likely to be living in the central parts of city. As they are more likely to fit into environments around the edges of city such as estates. This can be supported through the screen shots which demonstrate poor roads, fences and ageing walls. This demonstrates clear representation of estate environments which are often associated with young people maximum approaching to middle age. To support this, I think the audience fits well within the section of Rental Hubs on the Mosaic Classification, particularly from O62 to O66. This range includes individuals such as students who live in high density accommodations but also youngers who are attempting to rent houses near central in vibrant locations close to jobs and night life. The audience profile includes; students, learners & earners, bus-route renters, flexible workforce and people who feel central pulse.


Preferred reading : the dominant view and what the creator wants you to see.Oppositional reading: the complete opposite reading to what the creator had intended.Negotiated reading: an understanding of the dominant reading but can also see it from other perspectives.Aberrant reading: completely reject the product and have no view at all.The Audience Reception theory of Stuart Hall divides the audience into four different categories. The reading of this particular video can be considered as negotiated. The understanding of the dominant reading of Beyonce, representing women in a sexualised and appealing way in the eyes of men is very clear and strong. However, the audience might interpret the video in different perspectives. For example, the female side of the audience might understand the video and use it for personal identity, which allows them to obtained and follow the behaviours and appearances of the women portrayed within the video, suggesting that the decoding of the audience is not passive, its open to interpretations, while the encoding of the artist is also clear. Additionally the listed points above can be linked to Ien Angs theory as she believed that the audience is open to create cultural discussion based around a specific idea. This video definitely encourages consumers to become negotiated readers.Ed Sheeran - Sing