Attitude measurment

of 41 /41
Marketing Research 8th Ed Marketing Research 8th Ed ition Aa ition Aa ker, Kumar, Day ker, Kumar, Day Marketing Research Marketing Research Aaker, Kumar, Day Aaker, Kumar, Day Eighth Edition Eighth Edition Instructor’s Instructor’s Presentation Slides Presentation Slides

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Attitude measurment

  • 1. Marketing ResearchAaker, Kumar, Day Eighth EditionInstructors Presentation SlidesMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day

2. Chapter ElevenAttitude Measurement Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker, Kumar, Day 3. Attitude Measurement Majority of questions in marketing research aredesigned to measure attitudes Attitudes include Information possessed Feelings of like and/or dislike Intentions to behave Management wants to understand and influencebehavior Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 4. Reasons for Measuring Attitudes Attitudes lead to behavior More feasible to ask questions on attitudes than toobserve and interpret behavior Large capacity for diagnosis and explanation Learn which features of a new product concept areacceptable or unacceptable Measure the perceived strengths and weaknesses ofcompetitive alternatives Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 5. What Are Attitudes? Mental states used by individuals to structurethe way they perceive their environment andguide the way they respond to itMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 6. Components of AttitudeCognitive or Knowledge Component Represents a persons information about an object Awareness of existence on the object Beliefs about the characteristics or attributesof the object Judgments about the relative importance ofeach of the attributesMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 7. Components of Attitude (Cont.)Affective or Liking Component Summarizes a persons overall feelings toward anobject, situation, or person On a scale of like-dislike or favorable-unfavorable When there are several alternatives, liking isexpressed in terms of preference Measured by asking which alternative is mostpreferred or first choice, which is the secondchoice, and so on Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 8. Components of Attitude (Cont.)Intention or Action Component Refers to a persons expectations of future behaviortoward an object Intentions are usually limited to a distinct timeperiod that depends on buying habits and planninghorizons Advantage Incorporates information about a respondentsability or willingness to pay for the object, or othertaken actionMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 9. Measurement and ScalingMeasurement Standardized process of assigning numbers or othersymbols to certain characteristics of objects of interestsaccording to pre-specified rulesCharacteristics for Standardization One-to-one correspondence between the symbol and thecharacteristic in the object that is being measured Rules for assignment should be invariant over time andthe objects being measured Marketing Research 8th EditionAaker 10. Measurement and Scaling (Contd.)Scaling Process of creating a continuum on whichobjects are located according to the amount ofthe measured characteristic that the objectpossessesMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 11. Measurement ScalesNominal Scale Objects are assigned to mutually exclusive, labeledcategories No necessary relationships among categories No ordering or spacing are implied Only possible arithmetic operation is a count of eachcategory Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 12. Measurement Scales (Contd.)Ordinal Scale Rank objects or arrange them in order by some commonvariable Does each object have more or less of a variable thansome other object? Does not provide information on how much differencebetween objects Arithmetic operations are limited to statistics such asmedian or modeMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 13. Measurement Scales (Contd.)Interval Scale Numbers are assigned to objects that representcategories, rank orders, as well as how much the objectis preferred on the attribute being measured Differences can be compared Entire range of statistical operations can be employedMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 14. Measurement Scales (Contd.)Ratio Scale Type of interval scale with meaningful zero point Possible to say how many times greater or smaller oneobject is than another Magnitude scaling of attitudes has been calibratedthrough numeric estimationMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 15. Attitude Rating Scales Present a respondent with a continuum ofnumbered categories that represent the rangeof possible attitude adjustments Single item or multiple item scalesMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 16. Classification of AttitudeAttitude ScalesScales Single-ItemContinuousMulti-Item Scales Scales ScalesItemizedCategoryComparative Scales Scales SemanticAssociativeDifferential Scales Scale Q-sort Paired Scales ComparisonScales Rank Order ConstantPictorialLikertThurstoneStapel ScalesSum ScalesScalesScales ScalesScalesMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 17. Single Item Scales Only have one item to measure a construct Itemized-category scale most widely used bymarketing researchers Other single item scales Comparative Rank-order Q-sort Pictorial Constant sum Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 18. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Itemized-category Scales Scales in which the respondent selects from alimited number of categoriesComparative Scale A judgment comparing one object, concept, orperson against one anotherMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 19. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Rank-order Scales Scale in which the respondent compares one itemwith another or a group of items against eachother and ranks themQ-sort Scaling Respondents sort comparative characteristics intonormally distributed groups Ten or more groups increases accuracy of resultsMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 20. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Constant-sum scale Respondents allocate a fixed number of rating pointsamong serial objects to reflect relative preferencePictorial scales Various categories of the scale are depicted pictorially Thermometer Scale Funny faces scale Format must be comprehensible to respond and allowaccurate responseMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 21. Single Item Scales (Contd.)Paired-Comparison Scales The brands to be rated are presented two at a time, so each brandin the category was compared once to every other brand Brands are rated on a given 10 pts. that are then divided betweenthe two brandsAdvantages Performs well on the criteriaLimitations Cumbersome to administer Frame of reference is always the other brand being tested; thesebrands may change over timeMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 22. Designing Single Item Scales Number of Scale Categories Types of Poles Used in the Scale Strength of the Anchors Labeling of the Categories Balance of a Scale Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 23. Multiple-item Scales Developed to measure a sample of beliefstoward the attitude objects and combine the setof answers into an average scoreMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 24. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Likert Scale Requires respondent to indicate degree ofagreement or disagreement with a variety ofstatements related to the attitude object Summated Scale Scores on individual items are summed to give totalscore for respondents Likert Scale Is Uni-dimensional Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 25. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Thurstone Scales Also known as the method of equal-appearing intervals;objective is to obtain a unidimensional scale withinterval propertiesStep 1: Generate a large number of statements or adjectives reflectingall degrees of favorableness toward the attitude of objectsStep 2: A group of judges is given this set of items and asked toclassify them according to their degree of favorableness orunfavorablenessMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 26. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Thurstone Scales (Cont.)Advantages Easy to administer Requires minimum instructionsLimitations Time consuming Expensive to construct Not as much diagnostic value as a Likert scale Values depend on the attitudes of the original judgesMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 27. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Semantic-differential Scale Respondents rate each attribute object on anumber of five or seven-point rating scalesbounded by polar adjectives or phrases With bipolar scale, the midpoint is a neutralpoint Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 28. Characteristics of Semantic DifferentialScales in Semantic Marketing Applications : Pairs of objects or phrases must be meaningful in marketbeing studied and often correspond to product/serviceattributes Avoid "halo" effect by placing negative pole on either side Category increments are treated as interval scales so groupmean values can be computed for each object on each scale May also be analyzed as a summated rating scaleMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 29. Characteristics of SemanticDifferential (Contd.)Profile Analysis Application of semantic differential scale Plot mean ratings of each object on each scalefor visual comparison Overall comparison of brands hard to grasp withmany brands and attributes Not all attributes are independent Marketing Research 8th EditionAaker 30. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Stapel Scales Uses one pole rather than two opposite poles Respondents select a numerical responsecategory High positive score reflects good fit betweenadjective and object Easy to administer and construct No need to assure bipolarityMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 31. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Associative Scaling Most effective for markets where respondent isknowledgeable only about a small subset of alarge number of choices Appropriate to choice situations that involve asequential decision process Best suited to market tracking where theemphasis is on understanding shifts in relativecompetitive positionsMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 32. Multiple-item Scales (Contd.)Continuous Rating Scales Respondents rate objects by placing a mark atappropriate position on a line running from oneextreme of the criterion variable to the other Values can be interpreted as interval or ratioscaled data It is easy to construct Scoring is cumbersome and unreliable Marketing Research 8th EditionAaker 33. General Guidelines For Developing AMultiple-Item Scale Determine clearly what you are going tomeasure Generate as many items as possible Ask experts in the field to evaluate the initial pool of itemsDetermine the type of attitudinal scale to be used Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 34. Include some items that will help in the validation of the scaleAdminister the items to an initial sample Evaluate and refine the items Finally, optimize the scale lengthMarketing Research 8th EditionAaker 35. Choosing An Attitudinal ScaleProblems in choosing There are many different techniques, each with its own strengths and weaknesses Virtually any technique can be adapted to the measurement of any one of the attitude componentsResearchers choice shaped by: The specific information required Adabtability of the scale to the data collection method and budget constraints Compatibility of the scale with the structure of the respondents attitudeMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 36. Accuracy of Attitude MeasurementsValidity An attitude measure has validity if it measures what it is supposed to measureFace Validity The extent to which the content of a measurement scale appears to tap all relevant facets of the constructCriterion Validity Based on empirical evidence that the attitude measure correlates with other criterion variables Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 37. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements(Cont.)Concurrent validity Two variables are measured at the same timePredictive validity The attitude measure can predict some future eventConvergent validity A form of construct validity that represents theassociation between the measured construct andmeasures of other constructs with which theconstruct is related on theoretical groundsMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 38. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Cont.)Discriminant validity A form of construct validity that represents the extentto which the measured construct is not associatedwith which the construct is related on theoreticalgroundsConstruct Validity A scale evaluation criterion that relates to theunderlying question "what is the nature of theunderlying variable or construct measured by thescale?"Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 39. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements(Contd.)Reliability The consistency with which the measure produces thesame results with the same or comparable populationSensitivity Extent to which ratings provided by a scale are ableto discriminate between the respondents who differwith respect to the construct being measuredMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 40. Accuracy of Attitude Measurements (Contd.)Generalizability Refers to the ease of scale administration andinterpretation in different research settings andsituationsRelevancy Relevance = reliability * validityMarketing Research 8th Edition Aaker 41. Scales in Cross-national ResearchResponses Can Be Affected by: Low literacy and educational levels Culture in a country Semantic differential scale is closest to pancultural scale Adapting response formats, particularly theircalibration, for specific countries and cultures Marketing Research 8th Edition Aaker