Atomic Energy in India a Prespective

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Transcript of Atomic Energy in India a Prespective

Atomic Energy in India: A Perspective

FUEL TUBE BeO MODERATOR BeO REFLECTOR GRAPHITE REFLECTOR REACTOR REGULATING SYSTEM HEAT PIPE DOWNCOMER TUBE INNER VESSEL HEAT PIPES UPPER PLENUM PASSIVE HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM REACTOR REGULATING SYSTEM RADIAL HEAT PIPE GAS-GAPS HIGH CONDUCTIVITY SHELLS START-UP HEATER Core Cross Section

Government of India Department of Atomic Energy September, 2003

... when nuclear energy has been successfully applied for power production, in say, a couple of decades from now, India will not have to look abroad for its experts, but will find them ready at hand ... Homi J. Bhabha

The logo of DAE selected for its golden jubilee (August 2003 to August 2004) celebrations. The reactor dome with greenery in the foreground depicts nuclear power as a clean and environment friendly source; five human figures on the dome are symbolic of growth and prosperity of the nation and enhancement in quality of life of the people accrued from the research & development work being pursued in the Department.

THE BEGINNINGIn the early forties, atomic energy was the sun-rise technology, and the world was seeing atom as a future source of energy. Owing to the potential applications of atomic energy in many areas of human activities, atom was also seen as a saviour of mankind. ....... within the next couple of decades atomic energy would play an important part in the economy and the industry of countries and that, if India did not wish to fall even further behind the industrially advanced countries of the world, it would be necessary to take more energetic measures to develop this branch of science. Homi Bhabha April 26, 1948 To harness atomic energy for peaceful purposes, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was formed in 1954. Since then, the it has been engaged in the development of nuclear power technology, applications of the radiation technologies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry, and basic research.

THE ORGANISATION ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

ATOMIC ENERGY REGULATORY BOARD

DEPARTMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY

R&D CENTRES Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration & Research, Hyderabad Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences National Board of Higher Mathematics

INDUSTRIAL ORGANISATIONS Heavy Water Board, Mumbai Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad Board of Radiation & Isotope Technology, Mumbai

PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS Nuclear Power Corp. of India Ltd., Mumbai Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Mumbai Uranium Corp. of India Ltd., Jaduguda Electronics Corp. of India Ltd., Hyderabad

SERVICE ORGANISATIONS Directorate of Purchase & Stores, Mumbai Directorate of Construction, Services & Estate Management, Mumbai General Services Organisation, Kalpakkam

AIDED INSTITUTIONS

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata

Institute of Physics, Bhubaneshwar Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad

Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai Atomic Energy Education Society, Mumbai

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The Department, now an integrated group of organizations, comprises five Research Centres, three Industrial Organisations, four Public Sector Undertakings, and three Service Organisations. It has two Boards that promote, extra-mural activities by way of financial support, research in nuclear and allied fields, and mathematics. It also supports seven institutes of international repute engaged in research in basic sciences, astronomy, astrophysics, cancer research and education, etc., and a Society that provides educational facilities to the children of DAE employees. Within a decade of launching its atomic energy programme, India became one of the first ten most advanced countries in this new and complex technology. The country achieved the distinction of commissioning Asias first research reactor Apsara in 1956. This reactor was built indigenously, excepting for the fuel elements which were suppplied by the United Kingdom. With the confidence gained from this achievement, Dr. Bhabha drew up a three stage long-term nuclear power programme for India. The objective was that nuclear power development should reach a level such that power from nuclear energy should contribute significantly to the electricity needs for industrial and agricultural growth of the country.!

The first stage comprises setting up of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and associated fuel cycle facilities. ! The second stage envisages setting up of fast breeder reactors (FBRs) backed by reprocessing plants and plutonium-based fuel fabrication plants. ! The third stage will be based on the thorium-uranium-233 cycle. Uranium-233 is obtained by irradiation of thorium. In the short span of a decade, India had established comprehensive R&D facilities for the entire nuclear fuel cycle right from prospecting, mining and processing of uranium, fabrication of fuel, production of heavy water, design, construction and operation of power reactors, reprocessing of spent fuel, fast breeder reactors using plutonium based fuel, to radioactive waste management, and health and safety. India has also developed the technology of radioisotopes and their utilisation in agriculture, medicine and industry.

The Old Yacht Club Building -- the birth place of the Department of Atomic Energy

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Major ProgrammesNUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME STAGE I Higher Share for Nuclear PowerCompetitive Capacity Addition Sustain and Improve Capacity Utilisation Move towards Financing Capability through Internal Resource Generation Sustained Excellence in Safety Performance

!NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME STAGE II Commercial Demonstration of Fast Breeder TechnologyEarly setting up of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) and associated Fuel Cycle Plants Advanced Fuel Cycle with Higher Breeding Gain

!NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME STAGE III Technology Demonstration for Large Scale Thorium UtilisationAdvanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) Technology Road Map on Shaping the Third Stage

!RADIATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS Deployment Over Large ScaleDesalination of Water Nuclear Agriculture Radiation Processing of Food, Industrial and Medical Products Health Care and other Industrial Applications

!RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Broad based R&D in Nuclear Sciences and Technologies involving scientific groups within DAE and outside including Universities

!RESEARCH EDUCATION LINKAGE Mutual strengthening of Education and Research in Nuclear Sciences and Technologies and allied disciplines

Atomic Energy Establishments in IndiaSRINAGAR Nuclear Research Laboratory(BARC) GULMARG High Altitude Research Laboratory (BARC) RAWATBHATTA *Rajasthan Atomic Power Station 1-4 (NPCIL) *Rajasthan Atomic Power Project 5&6 (NPCIL) *Heavy Water Plant-Kota (HWB) *RAPCOF (BRIT) INDORE Centre for Advanced Technology MOUNT ABU Gurushikher Observatory for Astrophysical Sciences (BARC) BARODA Heavy Water Plant (HWB) AHMEDABAD Institute for Plasma Research KAKRAPAR Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (NPCIL) HAZIRA Heavy Water Plant (HWB) TARAPUR *Tarapur Atomic Power Station (NPCIL) *Tarapur Atomic Power Project 3&4 (NPCIL) *WIP / SSSF (BARC) *Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (BARC) *Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (BARC) MUMBAI *Nuclear Power Corporation Ltd.(HQ) *Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (HQ) *Heavy Water Board (HQ) *ISOMED Plant (BRIT) *Bhabha Atomic Research Centre *Radiation Medicine Centre (BARC) *BRNS / NBHM (HQ) *DPS / DCS&EM (HQ) *TIFR / TMC / AEES (HQ) NASIK KRUSHAK (BARC) NAVI MUMBAI *Board of Radiation & Isotope Technology (HQ) *Radio pharmaceutical Laboratories (BRIT) *Radiation Processing Plant (BRIT) *Beryllium Plant (BARC) *Electron Beam Centre (BARC) *ACTREC THAL Heavy Water Plant (HWB) KAIGA *Kaiga Atomic Power Station 1&2 (NPCIL) *Kaiga Atomic Power Project 3&4 (NPCIL) GAURIBIDANUR Seismic Station(BARC) MYSORE Rare Metal Plant (BARC) BANGALORE Radio pharmaceutical Laboratories (BRIT) DIBRUGARH RadioImmunoassay Centre (BRIT) KASAN Seismic Array Station (BARC) DELHI Radio pharmaceutical Laboratories (BRIT) NARORA Narora Atomic Power Station (NPCIL) ALLAHABAD Harish-Chandra Research Institute JADUGUDA/BHATIN *Uranium Corporation of India Limited (HQ) *Uranium Mill & Mines (UCIL) NARWAPAHAR Uranium Mine (UCIL) BANDUHURANG Uranium Mine (UCIL) TURAMDIH Uranium Mine (UCIL) KOLKATA *Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre *Regional Radiation Medicine Centre (VECC) *Radio pharmaceutical Laboratory (BRIT) *Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

TALCHER Heavy Water Plant (HWB) BHUBANESWAR Institute of Physics MANUGURU Heavy Water Plant (HWB) CHHATRAPUR Orissa Sand Complex / Thorium Plant (IRE)

HYDERABAD *Electronics Corporation of India Ltd (HQ) *Nuclear Fuel Complex (HQ) *Jonaki Laboratory (BRIT) *Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration & Research (HQ) *Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials CHENNAI (BARC) *Institute of Mathematical Sciences KALPAKKAM *Madras Atomic Power Station (NPCIL) *Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research *PFBR Project (IGCAR) *Nuclear Desalination Plant (BARC) *Kalpakkam Fuel Reprocessing Plant (BARC) *General Services Organisation UDYOGMANDAL (ALWAYE) Rare Earths Plant (IRE) CHAVARA Minerals Separation Plant (IRE) TUTICORIN Heavy Water Plant (HWB) PALA AKAY Y AL New Zirconium Sponge Plant (NFC) KUDANKULAM Kudankulam Atomic Power Project (NPCIL) MANAVALAKURUCHI Minerals Separation Plant (IRE) KOLLAM Low Radiation Research Laboratory (BARC)

ACTREC - Advanced Centre for Training Research & Education in Cancer AEES - Atomic Energy Education Societ