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    OF MEDIAEVAL

    STUDIES

    A

    gift

    of the

    famil

    of Bernard

    Bowles

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    ^Jje

    of

    Medfe^;

    .

    /

    \

    I

    I

    L/

    S

    Wii

    \

    ij

    ^,

    ^pnto,

    OntatW

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    ARISTOTLE

    ON

    THE

    ATHENIAN

    CONSTITUTION.

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    LONDON : G.

    BELL

    AND

    SONS,

    LTD.

    PORTUGAL

    ST.,

    KINGSWAY,

    W.

    C.

    CAMBRIDGE :

    DE1GHTON,

    BELL

    A CO.

    NEW YORK:

    THE

    MACMILLAN

    co>

    BOMBAY

    :

    A.

    H.

    WHEELER & CO.

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    Hi

    5-

    -jT

    ,

    -t

    *, j^

    MfrHr?ici;

    ember

    t

    1895.

    CORRIGENDA.

    Since

    the first four sheets of

    the

    translation

    were

    in

    type,

    some

    of the

    most

    doubtful

    passages

    of

    the

    papyrus

    have

    been

    examined

    by

    Professor

    Wilcken,

    the

    leading

    authority

    on

    papyri

    in

    Ger-

    many.

    As

    a

    result of his

    suggestions,

    I

    should

    now

    make

    the

    loi

    lowing

    alterations.

    Ch.

    3

    (p.

    4,

    note

    3),

    for

    SiaXXa-rro. read

    wopaXXarroi

    (so

    Blass).

    Ik-

    (p.

    5,

    1.

    4),

    read

    upon

    those

    who

    disputed

    them

    (i^nrjJrrroOvTOy,

    Wilcken).

    Ch.

    5 (p. 8,

    note

    4),

    Wilcken reads

    xXivo/^tsviiv

    ( lying

    prostrate ),

    which

    is

    equally,

    or

    nearly

    equally,

    possible

    palaeographically,

    and

    perhaps

    better

    in

    sense.

    Ch.

    6

    (p.

    10,

    1.

    14),

    for

    the

    laws

    read

    the

    rest of

    the

    people

    (mpouf, Blass, Wilcken).

    Ch.

    10

    (p.

    16,

    note

    i),

    for yow

    read

    tyovra

    (ist ed.,

    Wilcken).

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    INTRODUCTION.

    HPHE

    re-appearance

    of

    the

    Aristotelian

    trea-

    tise on

    the Constitution

    of Athens

    has a

    considerable claim

    to

    rank as the

    most

    striking

    event

    in

    the

    history

    of

    classical

    literature for

    perhaps

    the

    last

    three

    centuries.

    It

    is

    not

    that

    the

    work

    itself

    is

    equal

    in

    importance

    to

    many

    which

    have

    long

    been

    known

    ;

    but,

    though

    this

    may

    be

    freely

    admitted,

    few

    would

    question

    that

    it

    possesses

    a

    high

    intrinsic

    value,

    and the man-

    ner

    of its

    re-appearance

    has,

    naturally

    enough,

    invested it

    for

    the

    moment

    with

    a

    special

    interest

    of its

    own. After

    the

    lapse

    of a

    period

    which

    some

    scholars

    had

    reckoned

    at

    eighteen

    cen-

    turies,

    and

    which none

    could

    place

    at less

    than

    twelve,

    sinc e

    it

    was

    last

    seen

    by

    mortal

    eye,

    it

    was

    hardly

    to

    be

    held

    within the

    bounds

    of

    possibility

    that

    this

    work,

    well known

    though

    it

    was

    to

    scholars

    by name,

    should

    ever

    be re-

    covered

    in

    an

    approximately

    complete

    state.

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    viii

    INTRODUCTION.

    The

    discovery

    of

    lost works of

    classical

    antiquity

    has

    been

    the

    dream of

    scholars

    and of

    lovers of

    literature

    ever

    since the

    days

    of the

    Renaissance,

    when

    such

    discoveries

    were

    being

    made

    on

    every

    side,

    but

    it

    is

    a dream

    which,

    since

    those

    days,

    has

    been but

    scantily

    fulfilled.

    The

    wreck

    of

    Herculanean

    lore,

    so

    far

    from

    restoring

    to

    us

    a

    fragment

    of

    Pindar

    or

    Simonides,

    has

    pro-

    duced

    nothing

    but

    a

    number

    of

    works

    by

    an

    indifferent

    Epicurean

    philosopher,

    with a

    few

    by

    the

    master of that

    school

    himself.

    The

    monastic

    libraries

    of

    the East,

    from

    which have

    been

    un-

    earthed

    the

    inestimable

    Codex

    Sinaiticus

    of

    the

    New

    Testament

    and

    several other

    valuable

    theological

    manuscripts,

    have

    given

    practically

    nothing

    to

    classical literature

    ;

    and

    the

    chance

    of

    such

    discoveries

    grows

    less

    as

    this

    field

    is

    more

    thoroughly

    examined. For

    a time

    there

    were

    wide-spread

    hopes

    that

    many

    hitherto

    un-

    suspected

    treasures

    might

    be

    preserved

    in the

    shape

    of

    palimpsests,

    such as that in

    which

    the

    great

    work

    of

    Gaius

    was

    discovered

    at

    the be-

    ginning

    of the

    present

    century

    ;

    but the

    libraries

    of

    Europe

    have been

    searched,

    and

    nothing

    of

    equal

    value

    has come to

    light.

    There

    have

    been

    rumours,

    indeed,

    of treasures to

    be found

    in

    the

    Sultan's

    library

    at

    Constantinople

    when

    the

    day

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    INTRODUCTION.

    ix

    shall

    come

    for

    European

    eyes

    to

    examine

    its

    unexplored

    recesses

    ;

    but

    the

    basis

    of these

    rumours

    is hard to

    trace. One

    source,

    however,

    unsuspected

    until within this

    present

    century,

    has

    of

    late

    years

    shown

    results

    which

    may

    revive

    the

    hopes

    that

    had

    begun

    to fade. It is

    now

    certain

    that

    beneath

    the

    sands

    of

    Egypt,

    in

    its

    tombs

    and its buried

    cities,

    manuscripts

    written

    on

    papyrus

    have

    been

    preserved,

    to an

    extent

    which cannot

    be

    fairly

    estimated

    as

    yet.

    The

    majority

    of

    these

    are,

    no

    doubt,

    of

    very

    slight

    interest

    to

    theworldat

    large,

    beingprincipallycol-

    lections of

    magical

    formulas,

    monetary

    accounts,

    leases,

    wills,

    and other

    private

    documents.

    But,

    here

    and

    there,

    works

    of

    classical

    literature have

    been

    discovered,

    though

    always

    in

    a

    more

    or less

    fragmentary

    state.

    Some

    of

    them

    were

    evidently

    copies

    intended

    to

    be

    pleasing

    to

    the

    eye

    as

    well

    as

    profitable

    to

    the

    mind,

    and

    are written

    elegantly

    and

    formally

    upon

    good

    papyrus

    ;

    others,

    perhaps

    the

    majority,

    were

    rough

    transcripts

    intended for

    the

    owner's

    private

    benefit without

    much

    regard

    to

    appearance,

    written

    in

    hands which

    make no

    pretence

    to

    the

    neatness

    and

    regularity

    of

    the

    pro-

    fessional

    scribe,

    and

    sometimes,

    since

    papyrus

    was

    valuable,

    on

    the

    back

    of sheets of

    which

    the front

    had

    already

    been

    used

    for

    other

    purposes

    Most

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    x

    INTRODUCTION.

    of

    the

    works

    thus

    preserved

    are

    such

    as

    we

    knew

    already.

    Homer,

    as

    is

    right,

    is

    by

    far

    the

    most

    largely

    represented,

    and

    always,

    it

    may

    be

    observed,

    by

    the

    Iliad,

    never

    by

    the

    Odyssey

    *

    ;

    but

    portions

    of

    Thucydides,