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  • Pratap S BirthalP K JoshiAnjani Kumar

    Policy Paper 15


    Assessment of Research Prioritiesfor Livestock Sector in India

  • PublishedFebruary, 2002

    Published byDr. MruthyunjayaDirector, NCAP

    Printed atChandu PressD-97, ShakarpurDelhi - 110 092

    Policy Paper 15

    Assessment of Research Priorities for Livestock Sector in India



    List of tables iv

    List of figures v

    Annexures vi

    Foreword vii

    Acknowledgements viii

    Executive summary ix

    1. Introduction 1

    2. Growth of livestock sector: A perspective on 4contribution of research Growth and contribution of livestock sector Evolution of livestock research

    3. Methodology 19

    4. Regional priorities in livestock research 31 Distribution of extensity parameters Initial base line Final base line

    5. Species priorities in livestock research 40 Species priorities: All India Species priorities in states Product priorities by species and states Regional priorities by species

    6. Sensitivity analysis 50 Regional priorities Species priorities Existing and suggested allocation of resources

    7. Conclusions and policy implications 56

    References 59

    Annexures 65



    Table 1 Structure and growth of livestock population in IndiaTable 2 Contribution and growth of livestock sectorTable 3 Share of livestock in total energy available to Indian agricultureTable 4 Share of dung manure in total value of plant nutrients consumedTable 5 Size and distribution of land and livestock holdingsTable 6 Contribution of livestock to rural employmentTable 7 Consumption of livestock products in India and their share in

    food expenditureTable 8 Trade in livestock productsTable 9 Number of animal science research institutes/centres under ICARTable 10 Share of ICAR in total outlay for agriculture during different five-

    year plansTable 11 Share of livestock research in total research outlay of ICARTable 12 Compound growth rates in output, input and total factor

    productivity indexTable 13 Annual compound growth (percent) in output and yield of different

    livestock speciesTable 14 Goals, research objectives and extensity parameters for

    livestock research systemTable 15 Intensity indicators used to modify IBLTable 16 Share of livestock in gross value of output of agricultural sectorTable 17 Percent distribution of value of output, poverty, undernourished

    population, sustainability (CPRs) and exports by statesTable 18 Initial base line with different research objectivesTable 19 Impact of modifiers on IBLTable 20 Tradeoff in regional research prioritiesTable 21 Allocation of research resources with extensity and intensity

    parameters by livestock speciesTable 22 Research priorities by livestock species in different statesTable 23 Regional priorities by livestock speciesTable 24 Weighting schemes for sensitivity analysis for research resource

    allocationTable 25 Impact of changes in weights to research objectives on regional

    research prioritiesTable 26 Impact of changes in weights on species prioritiesTable 27 Existing and normative allocation of research resources by




    Figure 1 Regional priorities in livestock researchFigure 2 Existing allocation of research resources by speciesFigure 3 Suggested allocation of research resources by speciesFigure 4 Priorities in cattle researchFigure 5 Priorities in buffalo researchFigure 6 Priorities in goat researchFigure 7 Priorities in sheep researchFigure 8 Priorities in poultry researchFigure 9 Priorities in pig research



    Annexure I Sources of information on extensity parameters andtheir modifiers

    Annexure II Values of modifiers used for construction of FBLAnnexure III Research priority by individual commodity in different

    statesAnnexure IV.1 Commodity priorities in cattle research in different statesAnnexure IV.2 Commodity priorities in buffalo research in different

    statesAnnexure IV.3 Commodity priorities in goat research in different statesAnnexure IV.4 Commodity priorities in sheep research in different

    statesAnnexure IV.5 Commodity priorities in poultry research in different

    statesAnnexure IV.6 Commodity priorities in pig research in different statesAnnexure IV.7 Commodity priorities in camel research in different



  • In its continuing efforts to provide inputs to research planning, NCAP hastaken up livestock sector for a detailed analysis. Livestock sector is a sunrisesector of Indian economy, and is expected to emerge as an engine ofgrowth of the agricultural sector in the decades to come. Growing humanpopulation, sustained economic growth, changing lifestyles of the upwardlymobile middle class, and increasing urban population are driving rapidgrowth in demand for food of animal origin. However at the same time,productivity growth of livestock remains constricted owing to a number offactors, such as huge livestock population, inadequate feed and foddersupply, and poor adoption of technologies. Thus, it is increasingly felt thatfuture growth has to be demand- and technology-driven. The importanceof livestock sector goes beyond its food production function. It suppliesdraught power, organic manure and domestic fuel. Livestock is the lifelineof millions of landless, marginal and small landholders who own a sizeableproportion of livestock wealth. Since resources available are becomingscarcer to meet the challenges, it is critical to objectively evaluate livestockresearch priorities. This study provides an objective assessment of macrolevel research priorities for the livestock sector, in terms of regions, speciesand commodities. It covers all states and union territories, eight livestockspecies and their products and services. The study also gives acomprehensive picture of growth and contribution of livestock sector in theIndian economy and also the evolution of livestock research in India.

    The main findings of the study have been vetted by peers and also inmeetings with experts, policymakers and officials of the Government. It ishoped that the study will guide research resource allocation in the livestocksector for its accelerated growth.





    The study is a part of NATP funded project on Institutionalization of researchpriority setting, monitoring and evaluation, and networking of socialscientists. It was taken up at the behest of the World Bank Review Missionfor National Agricultural Technology Project, and with the objective ofimproving efficiency of animal science research through better targeting ofresearch resources in terms of regions, species and commodities. Manypersons have contributed to this endeavor. Dr. James G. Ryan, Memberof the Mission, and the former Director-General, International CropsResearch Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru (India) wasinstrumental in guiding the authors right from the initiation to the completionof this study. Dr. Mruthyunjaya, Director, and Dr. Dayanatha Jha, NationalProfessor, from the National Centre for Agricultural Economics and PolicyResearch, New Delhi have been a source of encouragement and guidanceto us. Dr. S.N. Mishra, former Director, Institute of Economic Growth, NewDelhi, Dr. S. S. Acharya, Director, Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur,Dr. C. Ramasamy, Director, Centre for Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentStudies, Coimbatore, Dr. M.P. Yadav, Director, Indian Veterinary ResearchInstitute, Izatnagar and Dr. S. Hirashima, Meiji-Gokui University, Tokyoprovided valuable suggestions on earlier drafts of the study. We are thankfulto all of them. The results of this study were earlier presented before theXth Five Year Plan Working Group on Animal Husbandry comprising Dr.P.N. Bhat, Dr. R.M. Acharya, Dr. Kiran Singh, former Deputy Director-Generals, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi and othersenior professionals from the National Agricultural Research System. Thediscussion with the Group has been useful in bringing out the final product.We are grateful to all of them.

    We are also grateful to our colleagues, Dr. Suresh Pal, Dr. Ramesh Chand,Dr. S. Selvarajan, Dr. B. C. Barah and Dr. P. Adhiguru for their valuablesuggestions and help. Mr. Jabir Ali and Ms Anamika Kaushik providedcomputational assistance. Ms Umeeta Ahuja helped in typesetting. Weare thankful to them.




    Livestock is emerging as a driving force in the growth of agricultural sectorof India. Several factors underline this development. Contribution of livestockto agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) has been rising; it increasedfrom 14 percent in 1980-81 to 23 percent in 1997-98. While the share ofagricultural sector in gross domestic product (GDP) declined from about35 percent to 26 percent during this period. Demand for livestock productsis income-elastic, and sustained growth in per capita income, rising urbanpopulation, and changing food habits and lifestyles are fuelling further growthin it.

    The importance of livestock goes beyond its food production function. Itprovides draught power and organic manure for agriculture and fuel fordomestic purposes. Livestock is an important source of income andemployment for millions of landless and small landholders particularly inthe less favored environments. In general, livestock wealth is more equitablydistributed than land. Growth in livestock sector is thus reckoned to reduceinterpersonal and interregional inequities, and alleviate poverty.

    On the other hand, there are apprehensions that the c