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  • DyslexiaAssessment 4/3/2016

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    ASSESSMENTANDINTERVENTIONFOR

    DYSLEXIACatherineChristo

    christo@csus.edu

    1 2

    Readingisawondrouscapability.Itallowsyoutolearnnewthings,entertainyourselfandcommunicate.

    Andwhenyouareasuccessfulreaderitisaneffortless

    undertaking.

    MyGoal:ToProvideYouWithInformationAboutTheseCriticalQuestions

    Whatisdyslexia?

    Howdoesdyslexiaaffectkids?

    HowDOKidsLearnToRead?

    WhatAretheCausesofDyslexia?

    HowDoWeKnowWhoMightHaveTroubleLearningToRead?

    Howdoweidentifykidswithdyslexia?

    WhatIsTheBestWayToTeachKidswithDyslexiatoRead?

    HowDoWeKnowiftheInterventionisWorking?

    HowCanAssessmentInformIntervention?

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    56334.The state board shall include phonological processing in the description of basic psychological processes in Section 3030 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations.

    56335.(a) The Superintendent shall develop program guidelines for dyslexia to be used to assist regular education teachers, special education teachers, and parents to identify and assess pupils with dyslexia, and to plan, provide, evaluate, and improve educational services to pupils with dyslexia. For purposes of this section, educational services means an evidence-based, multisensory, direct, explicit, structured, and sequential approach to instructing pupils who have dyslexia.

    (b) The program guidelines shall include, but shall not be limited to, characteristics typical of pupils with dyslexia and strategies for their remediation, as well as information to assist educators in distinguishing between characteristics of dyslexia and characteristics of normal growth and development.

    Ab1369

  • DyslexiaAssessment 4/3/2016

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    (c) In developing program guidelines pursuant to subdivision (a), the Superintendent shall consult with teachers, school administrators, other educational professionals, medical professionals, parents, and other professionals involved in the identification and education of pupils with dyslexia.

    (d) The Superintendent shall complete the program guidelines in time for use no later than the beginning of the 201718 academic year.

    (e) The Superintendent shall disseminate the program guidelines through the departments Internet Web site and provide technical assistance regarding their use and implementation to parents, teachers, school administrators, and faculty members in teacher training programs of institutions of higher education.

    CASP position paper

    Ab1369

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    Stateandlocaleducationalagencies(SEAsandLEAs)arereluctanttoreferenceorusedyslexia,dyscalculia,anddysgraphiainevaluations,eligibilitydeterminations, or in developing the individualized education program (IEP)under theIDEA.ThepurposeofthisletteristoclarifythatthereisnothingintheIDEAthatwouldprohibit the use of the terms dyslexia, dyscalculia, anddysgraphia in IDEA evaluation, eligibilitydeterminations,orIEP documents.

    . Therefore, there couldbe situationswhere the child 's parents andthe teamofqualified professionals responsible for determining whether the child has aspecificlearning disability would find it helpful to include informationaboutthe specific condition(e.g.,dyslexia, dyscalculia, or dysgraphia) indocumenting how that condition relates to the child'seligibilitydetermination. 34CFR 300.306(a)(l), (c)(l) and300.308.

    DepartmentofEducationGuidanceLetterOctober2015

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    StakeholdersalsorequestedthatSEAsandLEAshavepoliciesinplacethatallowfortheuseofthetermsdyslexia,dyscalculia,anddysgraphiaonachild'sIEP,ifachild'scomprehensiveevaluationsupportsuseoftheseterms.ThereisnothingintheIDEAorourimplementingregulationsthatprohibitstheinclusionoftheconditionthatisthebasisforthechild'sdisabilitydeterminationinthechild'sIEP.Inaddition,theIEPmustaddressthechild'sneedsresultingfromthechild'sdisabilitytoenablethechildtoadvanceappropriatelytowardsattaininghisorherannualIEPgoalsandtoenablethechildtobeinvolvedin,andmakeprogressin,thegeneraleducationcurriculum.34CFR300.320(a)(1),(2),and(4).Therefore,ifachild'sdyslexia,dyscalculia,ordysgraphiaistheconditionthatformsthebasisforthedeterminationthatachildhasaspecificlearningdisability,OSERSbelievesthattherecouldbesituationswhereanIEPTeamcoulddeterminethatpersonnelresponsibleforIEPimplementationwouldneedtoknowabout the condition underlying the child 's disability (e.g., that a childhas a weakness in decodingskillsasaresultofthechild'sdyslexia).

    DepartmentofEducationGuidanceLetterOctober2015

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    lnimplementingtheIDEArequirementsdiscussedabove,OSERSencouragesSEAsandLEAstoconsidersituationswhereitwouldbeappropriatetousethetermsdyslexia,dyscalculia,ordysgraphiatodescribeandaddressthechild'sunique,identifiedneedsthroughevaluation,eligibility,andIEPdocuments.OSERSfurtherencouragesStatestoreviewtheirpolicies,procedures,andpracticestoensurethattheydonotprohibittheuseofthetermsdyslexia,dyscalculia, anddysgraphiainevaluations,eligibility,andIEPdocuments.Finally,inensuringtheprovisionoffreeappropriatepubliceducation,OSERSencouragesSEAstoremindtheirLEAsoftheimportanceofaddressingtheuniqueeducationalneedsofchildrenwithspecificlearning disabilities resulting from dyslexia, dyscalculia, anddysgraphiaduring IEP Team

    DepartmentofEducationGuidanceLetterOctober2015

  • DyslexiaAssessment 4/3/2016

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    WHATISDYSLEXIA?

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    WhatIsDyslexia?

    1896,W.PringleMorgan,developmentalwordblindness

    1017Hinshelwoodcongenitalwordblindness

    Orton early1900s firstinU.S. Strephosymbolia

    Mixedcerebraldominance

    Pioneerinremedialtechniques

    AnnaGillingham developedinterventionprogrambasedonOrtonprinciples

    OrtonGillingham methodsstillsupportedtoday

    VAKT

    Geschwind

    Localizationofbrainfunction

    Galaburda

    Neurologicalabnormalities

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    WhatIsDyslexia?

    Definingdyslexia Discussion

    Whataretheessentialfeaturesofdyslexia?

    Definingdyslexia Typesofdyslexia

    Acquired Developmental

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    Beaton(2004)

    WhatIsDyslexia?Asociallyconstructeddisorder

    Dyslexia

    Difficultywithwholewordrecognition

    andconvertingnewwordsinto'sightwords

    CommonSchools

    MedicalModel Special

    Ed

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    WhatisDyslexia?

    InternationalDyslexiaAssociation,NationalInstituteofChildHealthandHumanDevelopmentOneofmostcommonlyaccepteddefinitions:

    Dyslexiaisaspecificlearningdisabilitythatisneurobiologicalinorigin.Itischaracterizedbydifficultieswithaccurateand/orfluentwordrecognitionandbypoorspellinganddecodingabilities.Thesedifficultiestypicallyresultfromadeficitinthephonologicalcomponentoflanguagethatisoftenunexpectedinrelationtoothercognitiveabilitiesandtheprovisionofeffectiveclassroominstruction.Secondaryconsequencesmayincludeproblemsinreadingcomprehensionandreducedreadingexperiencethatcanimpedegrowthofvocabularyandbackgroundknowledge.

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    WhatIsDyslexia?DSM5:Specificlearningdisorderisaneurodevelopmentaldisorderwithabiologicaloriginthatisthebasisforabnormalitiesatacognitivelevelthatareassociatedwiththebehavioralsignsofthedisorder.Thebiologicaloriginincludesaninteractionofgenetic,epigenetic,andenvironmentalfactors,whichaffectthebrainsabilitytoperceiveorprocessverbalornonverbalinformationefficientlyandaccurately.

    Withimpairmentinreading315.00(F81.0):

    WordreadingaccuracyReadingrateorfluency

    Withimpairmentinwrittenexpression315.2(F81.81):

    Spellingaccuracy

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    AmericanPsychiatricAssociation(2013,pp.6768)

    WhatIsDyslexia?DSM5 NOTE:Dyslexia isanalternativetermusedtorefertoapatternoflearningdifficultiescharacterizedbyproblemswithaccurateorfluentwordrecognition,poordecoding,andpoorspellingabilities.Ifdyslexiaisusedtospecifythisparticularpatternofdifficulties,itisimportantalsotospecifyanyadditionaldifficultiesthatarepresent,suchasdifficultieswithreadingcomprehensionormathreasoning.

    Difficultieslearningtomapletterswiththesoundsofoneslanguage toreadprintedwords(oftencalleddyslexia) isoneofthemostcommonmanifestationsofspecificlearningdisorder.

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    AmericanPsychiatricAssociation(2013,pp.6768)

    WhatIsDyslexia?

    Definingdyslexia NationalInstitutesofNeurologicalDisordersandStroke Dyslexiaisabrainbasedtypeoflearningdisabilitythatspecificallyimpairsapersonsabilitytoread.Theseindividualstypicallyreadatlevelssignificantlylowerthanexpecteddespitehavingnormalintelligence.Althoughthedisordervariesfrompersontoperson,commoncharacteristicsamongpeoplewithdyslexiaaredifficultywithspelling,phonologicalprocessing(themanipulationofsounds),and/orrapidvisualverbalresponding.Inadults,dyslexiausuallyoccursafterabraininjuryorinthecontextofdementia.Itcanalsobeinheritedinsomefamilies,andrecentstudieshaveidentifiedanumberofgenesthatmaypredisposeanindividualtodevelopingdyslexia.

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  • DyslexiaAssessment 4/3/2016

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    WhatIsDyslexia?

    Definingdyslexia1.Commonalitiesacrossdefinitions

    1.Etiologyisaneurobiological2.Behavioralmarkerisdifficultieswithsingleworddecoding3.Unexpectedgivenotherlearning/cognitiveskillsandabilities,andthepresencesofqualityinstruction

    4.Canresultindifficultyinconstructingmeaningfromtextandassociatedacademicskilldevelopment

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    Christo,Davis,&Brock(2009)

    WhatIsDyslexia?

    Definingdyslexia Morethanjustalackofskilldevelopment

    1.Earlydifferencesinphonologicalprocessingandassociatedprocesses2.Phonologicalprocessingpredictsreadingskilldevelopment3. Interventionsthattargetphonologicalprocessingimprovereadingskill4.Neuroimagingsuggestsfunctionalbraindifferences5.Aheritabledisorderconnectedtospecificgeneticdifferences

    Affectedbylanguageskills(otherthansoundprocessing)andinstruction,butsuchisnottheprimarycauseofthedisability Theenvironmen