ARTS - Mediums of the Visual Arts: Painting, Sculpture and Architecture

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Transcript of ARTS - Mediums of the Visual Arts: Painting, Sculpture and Architecture



Mediums of the Visual ArtsRefers to the materials which are used by an artistMeans by which he communicates his ideasMany mediums have been used in creating different works of artMediums is very essential to arts.


Pigments of the painter could be applied to:Wet PlasterCanvas




PAINTINGThe art of creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by the use of pigmentsOIL PAINTINGPigments are mixed in oilThe most familiar type of painting is done with oil on canvass.The surface to be suitable must receive oil paint freely and yet not absorb it, can withstand temperature changes and not crack the pigment on it.Pigments can come from many sources: minerals, vegetable matter, coal tars, and other chemical combinationsTwo Methods in Oil PaintingDirect method: paints are opaque and are applied to the surface just as they are to look in the finished productIndirect method: the paint is applied in many thick layers of transparent color.

Oil color is the best method for convincing representation where exact reproduction of a color tone is necessary.


Mixture of ground pigments and an albuminous or colloidal vehicle, either egg, gum, or glue, used by Egyptian, Medieval, and Renaissance painters. Special characteristic: EMULSION -Watery, milk-like texture of oily and watery consistency.

Advantages of Tempera- Rapid drying Great luminosity of the stone Colors are clear and beautiful

Resurrection with Two Angels by Bernardino Fungai Temper a on Wood Siena, 1460-16163 Principal Dimensions1.Unvarnished or goauche like tempera2. Varnished tempera3. tempera as under painting for oil

Majesty Segna Di Bonaventura Tempera on Panel Siena, 1298-1326

WATERCOLOR Pigments are mixed with water and applied to fine white paper. Require a high degree of technical dexterity. Paper is the most commonly used for ground.Opaque watercolor is also called gouache

Made by grinding opaque colors with water and mixing the product with a preparation of gum and adding Chinese white to transparent watercolors.


What are Sculptures?the art of making two- or three-dimensional representative or abstract forms,by the use of different mediums. (to be discussed later on.)

In choosing a subject for sculpture, the most important thing to consider is the material. Substances available for sculpture are limitless. Some of the earlier sculptures are made from bone or wood.Different materials required different methods of handling.

Types of Mediums in Making Sculpture Soft MediumHas freedomLend itself to a moderate technique that uses squeezing and shaping and continuously adding to it as the work goes on Modeling allows for the expansion of gestureClay is a good example of soft mediumHard MediumRequires the process of cutting and taking away from the blockCarving is confined to the limits of wood or stoneStone and wood is a good example of hard medium


Major Sculpture Processes Used:Subtractive Process: ( - )A process in which unwanted material is cut away.Carving of Stone and Wood is a good example. It is the 2 major mediums in subtractive process.Additive Process: ( + )The construction of a figure by putting together bits of clay, or by welding together parts of a metal.Final results are produced by putting together smaller segments of metals.May be plastic material and can be molded like moist clay.Materials may be rigid or semi-rigid like metal wires, rods and plates.

2 Types of Sculpture:ReliefFigures which are attached to the ground like the relief of Stela of Akhenaten and the Sculpture made by Ed Castrillo for the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Free-standing:Can be seen from all sides can be seen from all sides like the UP Oblation made by Guillermo Tolentino in 1949. It is made of bronze and stone.


Bonifacio ShrineMade by: Eduardo Castrillo


Stone and BronzeThe media most commonly used for sculpture are stone and metal.Stone is durable, resistant to elements, fire and other hazards. On the other hand, it is heavy and breaks easily.Marble is the most beautiful of stones. Plenty in Greece and Italy and commonly used. High gloss and polished; more or less permanent.Pieta by Michael Angelo in the Vatican City & The head of Ptolemy I are made of marble.

WoodAdvantage: Really Cheap, Readily Available and easy to cut. Polishes well and has smooth, shiny surface and beautiful color. Relatively light and can be made easily into a variety of shapes. The grain of wood that could be seen ads to beauty.Carved Pulpit of the San Austin Church in Intramuros is an example of Phil. Carving.

Disadvantage: Limited in Size and Burns Easily. Discolor and Decays easily in the Phil. Climate.

IvoryIvory Statues survive through long periods of time due to the intrinsic value of the material. Ivory lends itself to technical mastery. Popular to ordinary craftspeople.Many statues of saints have heads and arms made of Ivory.Ivory lacks the vigor of wooden statues. Like wood, it also cracks. Seldom used today.

Terra CottaTerra Cotta means Cooked Earth.It is made when Moist Clay is molded and then subjected to heat.Moderately Coarse Clay product fired comparatively low temperature.Usually painted and coated in heavy glaze.Breaks and Chips Easily, not strong; cannot stand great strain or weight.

Mount Li(shan); Qin Shi Huang

Other MaterialsAluminumChromiumSteelPlasticChemically Treated Clay & Stone for casting in liquid form

*** Plastic is less expensive for use as a casting material than metals and less fragile in many ways. Beauty; lightness makes it preferable to other materials.

MATERIALS IN ARCHITECTUREThe materials used in a building and the methods which are used in assembling them are among the factors contributing to architectural style.Availability of materials is important.Durability and beauty is the basis of choosing the materials.