Artificial Sweeteners FINAL
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- 1. ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS Presentation by Inbar Schapsis
- 2. RAISE YOU HAND IF You regularly use artificial sweeteners
- 3. YOURE NOT ALONE! About 86% of Americans use low-calorie, reduced- sugar, or sugar-free foods and drinks!
- 4. RAISE YOU HAND IF Youre cautious or worried about using artificial sweeteners
- 5. YOURE NOT ALONE! A Mintel survey found that over 60% of respondents were concerned about the safety of artificial sweeteners.
- 6. RAISE YOU HAND IF You feel children or pregnant women should avoid artificial sweeteners
- 7. OBJECTIVES TODAY WE WILL LEARN What are artificial sweeteners? Who regulates them? What does research say regarding their safety? Are they helpful with weight loss?
- 8. WHAT ARE ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS? Artificial sweeteners usually refer to non-nutritive (or non-caloric) substances Interact with taste receptors to give a sense of sweetness They are usually MUCH sweeter than regular sucrose sugar Can exceed sweetness of sucrose by a factor of 30- 13,000 times!!!
- 9. WHO REGULATES THEM? The FDA regulates artificial sweeteners as food additives. Normally, the manufacturer of the product is required to submit evidence in the form of research to prove the product is safe However, if the compounds are already on the list of substances considered generally regarded as safe (GRAS), they are not viewed as food additives
- 10. WHAT HAPPENS WITH GRAS ITEMS? In the case that the compound is GRAS, it becomes the responsibility of the FDA to show the substance is unsafe. The acceptable daily intake levels are based on data from animal experiments The no observed adverse effect level with daily exposure
- 11. THE THREE MOST COMMON In the US, the three most common artificial sweeteners are: Saccharin Aspartame Sucralose
- 12. SACCHARIN Saccharin was first discovered in 1879 quite by accident!
- 13. SACCHARIN Saccharin was first discovered in 1879 quite by accident! In use since 1900 and obtained FDA approval in 1970 After ingestion, saccharin is NOT absorbed or metabolized: excreted unchanged through the kidneys.
- 14. SACCHARIN Studies in the 70s shows that rats exposed to a diet of at least 5% saccharin had increased frequency of bladder cancer (especially in males) Results from above study resulted in prohibition of saccharin in Canada and proposed ban in US (withdrawn in 91) Instead, foods containing saccharin had to have a warning label saying it contains a potential cancer causing agent
- 15. SACCHARIN Future mechanistic studies showed that the results only applied to rats it supressed humoral antibody production in rats. Moreover, later studies showed that the rats used in the trial were frequently infected with a urinary parasite. Human epidemiology studies have shown no consistent evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer incidence (cancer.gov) Warning label was therefore overturned in 2000.
- 16. ASPARTAME In 1965, a chemist was working on gastric ulcer treatments, when(again) some of the compound got on his hand. Approved by FDA in 1981 as a table-top sweetener; in 1996 as general-purpose sweetener. It is 200 times sweeter than sugar Most controversial sweetener!
- 17. ASPARTAME Since it contains phenylalanine, FDA requires the package bear a warning label to protect individuals with PKU. Upon ingestion, aspartame is hydrolyzed in the intestines into aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol absorbed into blood and metabolized Hypothesized that these substances do not accumulate and are metabolized the same way as if they were from food
- 18. ASPARTAME Research in 2005 on fetal rats showed significant increase in malignant tumors, lymphomas, leukemias, and mammary cancer. Following these results, the FDA decided to investigate further into the results and found several discrepancies Doses given to rats were equivalent to drinking 8-2083 cans of diet soda per day Number of cancer incidences did not increase with increasing aspartame FDA released a statement in 2006 regarding this study:
- 19. FDA STATEMENT review of ERF's (European Ramazzini Foundation) study concluded, among other things, that on the basis of all evidence currently available to EFSA (European Food Safety Authority): ERF's conclusion that aspartame is a carcinogen is not supported by the data; and EFSA sees no need to further review its earlier scientific opinion on the safety of aspartame or to revise the Acceptable Daily Intake
- 20. MORE ON ASPARTAME In humans, doses of 2-100 mg/kg resulted in increases of phenylalanine, but no behavioural/cognitive performance changes. Doses of 30-77 mg/kg/day over 13 weeks in 126 children showed no impact on renal or hepatic function, hematologic statues, or eye function.
- 21. MORE ON ASPARTAME 2007 toxicology review found that studies conducted in rodents and dogs with aspartame and its metabolized products have found no adverse effect with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg/day. Current ADI (acceptable daily intake) of aspartame is 50mg/kg/d
- 22. SUCRALOSE SPECIAL TREAT ALERT!!! Can anyone guess how this was discovered? Sucrose molecule in which 3 hydroxyl groups are replaced by chlorine
- 23. SUCRALOSE SPECIAL TREAT ALERT!!! Can anyone guess how this was discovered? Sucrose molecule in which 3 hydroxyl groups are replaced by chlorine 600 times sweeter! Cl Cl Cl
- 24. SUCRALOSE NOT digested by the body most that is given to mice, rats, dogs, and humans passes through the GI and eliminated in the feces unchanged. Toxicology studies show little effect Most significant study showed shrunken thymus glands with diets of 5% sucralose Further studies showed that the changes were NOT caused by toxicity, but as a result of nutritional deficit
- 25. SUCRALOSE Since this sweetener was not GRAS, the FDA has to review over 100 safety studies to assess risk and ensure consumer safety Studies show no evidence that sucralose causes cancer or pose any other risk for to human health
- 26. WHAT ABOUT WIC CLIENTS? The American Pregnancy Association states that both aspartame and sucralose are safe to use during pregnancy and lactation. While saccharin is deemed safe for the general population, studies show that it can cross the placenta and can remain in fetal tissue American Academy of Pediatrics has no official recommendations, though AND states that they can be incorporated into a healthy diet.
- 27. BREAK TIME! Lets do a little taste test
- 28. WHAT ABOUT WEIGHT LOSS? Artificial sweeteners are non-nutritive, meaning they provide 0 calories. That should be a no-brainer! Data from epidemiological studies show a correlation between diet beverage use and weight gain in children. Randomized trials in children very limited
- 29. WHAT ABOUT WEIGHT LOSS? In adults, the data is very inconsistent While many controlled trials show a decrease in weight loss, many show no effect. Some show that users experience a compensatory effect Conclusions: we simply dont know if they work for weight loss in the long run.
- 30. AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION The evidence reviewed suggests that when used judiciously, NNS could facilitate reductions in added sugars intake, thereby resulting in decreased total energy and weight loss/weight control, and promoting beneficial effects on related metabolic parameters
- 31. AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION However, these potential benefits will not be fully realized if there is a compensatory increase in energy intake from other sources.
- 32. QUESTIONS? LETS DISCUSS!
- 33. SOURCES Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer. (2009). Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/artificial- sweeteners Artificial Sweeteners and Pregnancy. (2012). Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/artificial- sweeteners-and-pregnancy Brown, R., De Banate, M., & Rother, K. (2010). Artificial Sweeteners: A Systematic Review Of Metabolic Effects In Youth. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 305-312. FDA Statement on European Aspartame Study. (2006). Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2006/ ucm108650.htmPotential toxicity of artificial sweeteners Magnuson, B., Burdock, G., Doull, J., Kroes, R., Marsh, G., Pariza, M., ... Williams, G. (2007). Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use Levels, Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 629-727. Whitehouse, C., Boullata, J., & Mccauley, L. (2008). The Potential Toxicity Of Artificial Sweeteners. AAOHN Journal, 251-259.