Art Collections, Technology, and the Museum

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  • Art Collections, Technology, and the MuseumUniversity of Denver, Emergent Digital PracticesFebruary 17, 2016

    David Newbury / @workergnome

  • Thank You University of Denver Chris Coleman & Laleh Mehran, Emergent Digital Practices Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh

  • Who am I? I am not representing the Carnegie Museums I am not a museum professional I am not representational of museums

  • Who am I? I work with computers I work with artists I work with data

  • Museums are in Transitionfrom object-driven...

  • Museums are in Transitionfrom object-driven...

    ...through vistor-driven...

  • Museums are in Transitionfrom object-driven...

    ...through vistor-driven...

    ...to data-driven

  • What does it mean to be a museumin the world of Google and Wikipedia?

  • The history of the Museum is:The transferral of collectionsfrom the private to thepublic domain.

  • Cabinets of Curiousity15th 18th century

    A herbarium is better than any illustration; every botanist should make one. Carolus Linnaeus6

    6 Philosophia Botanica (1751), aphorism 11. Trans. Frans A. Statfleu, Linnaeus and the Linnaeans: The Spreading of their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 1735-1789 (1971), 38.

  • The Encyclopedic Museum18th 20th century

    Encyclopedic museums hold to the principle of universal access to knowledge. James Cuno 4

    4 Cuno, James (2011), Museum Matters: In praise of the Encyclopedic Museum, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • The British Museum1753

    not only for the inspection and entertainment of the learned and the curious, but for the general use and benefit of the public.

  • The Smithsonian Institution1846

    ...an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men.

  • The Collections1950s 1990s

    There was a perceptible shift from serving the scholar...to providing for a lay public as well. Geoffrey D. Lewis 5

    5 http://www.britannica.com/topic/history-398827

    http://www.britannica.com/topic/history-398827

  • Museum Services1980s Today

    In the span of a century we have gone from cabinets of curiosity, to period rooms, to carefully curated thematic exhibitions, to open storage, to digital surrogates. Are we meeting the access needs of our visitors any better today than we did in 1911? Rainey Tisdale14

    14 http://aaslhcommunity.org/historynews/files/2011/08/RaineySmr11Links.pdf

  • History of the Museum

    What does it mean to be a museumin the world of Google and Wikipedia?

    What are museums excellent at?

  • What visitors think a museum doesand what the museum thinks it doescan be wildly different.

  • Museums as Businesses

    Art museums are all about design and creativitya vital component to our global competitiveness. John Wetenhall, Former President, Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh8

    8 http://www.carnegiemuseums.org/cmag/feature.php?id=332

    http://www.carnegiemuseums.org/cmag/feature.php?id=332

  • Museums as Educators

    The opportunity to be of profound service...must certainly outdazzle any satisfactions that the old salvage, warehouse, or soda-pop business could ever possibly have offered. Stephen E Weil 16

    16 Weil, Stephen E.. From Being About Something to Being for Somebody: The Ongoing Transformation of the American Museum. Daedalus 128.3 (1999): 229258.

  • Museums as Databases

    Museums that maintain collections hold them in trust for the benefit of society and its development. ICOM Code of Ethics11

    11 http://icom.museum/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/Codes/code_ethics2013_eng.pdf

    http://icom.museum/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/Codes/code_ethics2013_eng.pdf

  • For certain professionals,preservation, documentation & researchof the collection represent the main objectives for museums.

    Izabela Luiza Pop7

    7 http://www.academia.edu/10950015/WHY_DO_MUSEUMS_MATTER_A_CASE_STUDY_ON_THE_MARAMURES_COUNTY_MUSEUMS

    http://www.academia.edu/10950015/WHY_DO_MUSEUMS_MATTER_A_CASE_STUDY_ON_THE_MARAMURES_COUNTY_MUSEUMS

  • Information Excessvs. Information ScarcityThe problem of the 21st century willnot be how to find information,but how to filter information.

  • Humanity shares1,800,000,000photos a day.

  • Amazon gets90,000,000visitors a month.

  • Rich Data, not Big Data

    The meteoric rise of data is now estimated at 2.5 quintillion bytes daily,90% less than 2 years old. IBM

    https://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/bigdata/what-is-big-data.html

  • MetadataMuseums are in the business of metadata. Behind the galleries of every great museum is a meticulously organized card catalog, file cabinet, or collection database being reshaped and repackaged for digital appetites. Alana Miller, Huge Inc 3

    3 http://www.hugeinc.com/ideas/perspective/dealing-with-data-in-museums

    http://www.hugeinc.com/ideas/perspective/dealing-with-data-in-museums

  • Cleveland Museum of Art

    Every museum is searching for this holy grail, this blending of technology and art... David Franklin, Director, Cleveland Museum of Art10

    10 http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/21/arts/artsspecial/at-cleveland-museum-of-art-the-ipad-enhances.html/

    http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/21/arts/artsspecial/at-cleveland-museum-of-art-the-ipad-enhances.html/http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/21/arts/artsspecial/at-cleveland-museum-of-art-the-ipad-enhances.html/

  • The APIBy developing the API, we can create this one thing that will work for many people so it no longer become a project every time we are asked to take part. Shelley Bernstein, Brooklyn Museum 1

    1 http://blog.variousbits.net/2009/04/16/the-brooklyn-museum-api-qa-with-shelley-bernstein-and-paul-beaudoin/

    http://blog.variousbits.net/2009/04/16/the-brooklyn-museum-api-qa-with-shelley-bernstein-and-paul-beaudoin/

  • Cooper Hewitt

    The Cooper Hewitt has transformed into an organization not unlike Wikipedia, Pinterest, or, for that matter, The Atlantic: Somewhere between a media and a tech firm, it is a Thing That Puts Stuff on the Internet. The Atlantic 2

    2 http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/how-to-build-the-museum-of-the-future/384646/

    http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/how-to-build-the-museum-of-the-future/384646/http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/how-to-build-the-museum-of-the-future/384646/

  • Cooper Hewitt's API

  • Open DataBeing promiscuous means spending more effort on creating and spreading, and less on trying to control access...Promiscuity is one way to demolish the perception of exclusivity that has dogged museums for longer than Ive been around. Ed Rodley9

    9 https://medium.com/code-words-technology-and-theory-in-the-museum/the-virtues-of-promiscuity-cb89342ca038#.u8nx50fnt

    https://medium.com/code-words-technology-and-theory-in-the-museum/the-virtues-of-promiscuity-cb89342ca038#.u8nx50fnt

  • Copyright & Fair Use

    Although members of the [visual arts] community may rely on fair use in some instances, they may self-censor in others, due to confusion, doubt, and misinformation about fair use... Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for the Visual Arts 12

    12 http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/fair-use/best-practices-fair-use-visual-arts.pdf

    http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/fair-use/best-practices-fair-use-visual-arts.pdf

  • Creative Commons Zero

    While releasing this data with No Rights Reserved was a significant milestone for MoMA, a bigger cultural shift lies behind the records that are marked not curator approved. Fiona Romeo, Director of Digital Content & Strategy at MoMA. 13

    13 https://medium.com/digital-moma/thousands-of-exhausted-things-or-why-we-dedicated-moma-s-collection-data-to-the-public-domain-7e0a7165e99#.s82xw6ncx

    https://medium.com/digital-moma/thousands-of-exhausted-things-or-why-we-dedicated-moma-s-collection-data-to-the-public-domain-7e0a7165e99#.s82xw6ncxhttps://medium.com/digital-moma/thousands-of-exhausted-things-or-why-we-dedicated-moma-s-collection-data-to-the-public-domain-7e0a7165e99#.s82xw6ncx

  • video

    https://vimeo.com/133815147

  • Who puts artin a museum?As digital interaction becomes more complex, when does it become art?

  • Linked Open Data

    Open data Linked data Linked open data

  • The Getty Vocabularies

    The Getty vocabularies are the premiere references for categorizing works of art, architecture, material culture, and the names of artists, architects, and geographic names. Wikipedia 15

    15 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getty_Vocabulary_Program

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getty_Vocabulary_Program

  • Carnegie Museum of ArtArchivesThe digital archives at the Carnegie Museum of Art contain documents, photos, and the collected history of the museum's past 120 years.

    records.cmoa.org

    http://records.cmoa.org

  • Data VisualizationAvoid human weaknesses Limited memory Terrible at counting Prone to obsession Easily bored

  • Data VisualizationLeverage human strengths Amazing pattern recognition Wonderful at connections Capable of gestalt Constructs meaning

  • The Tate metadata

    https://github.com/tategallery/collection

    The Metadata published by Tate is available free of restrictions under the Creative Commons Zero Public Domain Dedication.

    https://github.com/tategallery/collection

  • The Tate Explorer

  • Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah

    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah

  • Mapping Titia