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    INGING DRAGON

     Jennifer P eace Rhind

    E S S E N T I A L O I L S I N S Y N E R G Y  

     Aromatherapeutic B L E N D I N G  

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     Aromatherapeutic

    B L E N D I N G

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    by the same author 

    Essential Oils  A Handbook for Aromatherapy Practice Second Edition ISBN 978 1 84819 089 4

    eISBN 978 0 85701 072 8

    Listening to Scent   An Olfactory Journey with Aromatic Plants and Teir Extracts ISBN 978 1 84819 125 9

    eISBN 978 0 85701 171 8

    Fragrance and Wellbeing Plant Aromatics and Teir Influence on the Psyche

    ISBN 978 1 84819 090 0eISBN 978 0 85701 073 5

     A Sensory Journey  Meditations on Scent for Wellbeing Card Set ISBN 978 1 84819 153 2

    eISBN 978 0 85701 175 6

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     Aromatherapeutic

    B L E N D I N G ESSENTIAL OILS IN SYNERGY 

     JENNIFER  PEACE  R HIND

     

    LONDON AND PHILADELPHIA

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    First published in 2016 by Singing Dragon an imprint of Jessica Kingsley Publishers 73 Collier Street London N1 9BE, UK  and

    400 Market Street, Suite 400 Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA 

    www.singingdragon.com

    Copyright © Jennifer Peace Rhind 2016

     All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright owner except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing

     Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8S. Applications for the copyright owner’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher.

     Warning: Te doing of an unauthorised act in relation to a copyright work may result in both a civil claim for

    damages and criminal prosecution.

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data  Rhind, Jennifer, author.   Aromatherapeutic blending : essential oils in synergy / Jennifer Peace Rhind.   p. ; cm.   Includes bibliographical references and index.   ISBN 978-1-84819-227-0 (alk. paper)   I. itle.

    [DNLM: 1. Aromatherapy--methods. 2. Drug Synergism. 3. Oils, Volatile--therapeutic use. WB 925]   RM666.A68   615.3’219--dc23   2015008188

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data   A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library 

    ISBN 978 1 84819 227 0 eISBN 978 0 85701 174 9

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    For Derek and Leeloo – always and forever in my heart 

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    󰁃󰁏󰁎󰁔󰁅󰁎󰁔󰁓

    PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    Part I  Principles and Practice   15  1  Essential Oil Synergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    2  Te Individual Prescription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    3   A Spectrum of Approaches: Science-based, Psychosensory and Vitalistic Paradigms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    4   Aromatherapeutic Blending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    5   Applications, Carrier Media, Dosage and Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    6   Acne Vulgaris: A Case Study by amara Agnew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    Part II  Essential Oils and Absolutes : Actions and Evidence   73 7  Pain and Inflammation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    8  Smooth Functioning : Antispasmodic and Anticonvulsant Actions . . . . . . . . . . 94

    9  Health Maintenance and Enhancement: Anti-oxidant

    and Anti-cancer Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 10  Infection and Immunity : Antimicrobial and Immunomodulant Actions . . . . . 119

    11  Respiratory Support: Expectorant, Mucolytic, Decongestant and Antitussive  Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

    12  Te Skin and Soft issues: Wound-healing, Regenerating, Anti-allergic and  Antipruritic Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

    13  Te Psyche: Anxiolytic, Antidepressant and Cognition-enhancing Actions . . . 162

    Part III   Aromatics   187 

    14  Essential Oils and Absolutes: Evidence-based Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 15  Expanded Practice Aromatics: Abbreviated Profiles for Synergistic Blending . . 255

     AFERWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

    GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

     APPENDIX : FIXED PLAN AND MACERAED HERBAL OILS IN AROMAHERAPY . . . . . . . 282

    REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

    RESOURCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

    ESSENIAL OILS INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 SUBJEC INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

     AUHOR INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

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    9

    󰁐󰁒󰁅󰁆󰁁󰁃󰁅 󰁁󰁎󰁄 󰁁󰁃󰁋󰁎󰁏󰁗󰁌󰁅󰁄󰁇󰁅󰁍󰁅󰁎󰁔󰁓

    Tis book was originally conceived as a practical blending tool – a set of cards – that could be used to explore the relationships between essential oils when formulating aromatic prescriptions. I had an idea that these cards would contain colour-coded information, and that they could be laid out in patterns – rather like tarot spreads – to illustrate the different approaches to blending described in Essential Oils: A Handbook for Aromatherapy Practice (Rhind 2012); indeed, it

    was to be a companion to that text. As good an idea as that sounded, it quickly became clear that the intricacies of aromatherapeutic blending demanded a much fuller investigation, not only into what constitutes synergy from the perspective of holistic aromatherapy, but also of the recently published research into the biological and therapeutic actions of essential oils and their constituents.

     When I began to explore the concept of synergy and aromatic plants, it was my ‘inner biologist’ that fuelled the search for evidence, and I accessed a considerable number of papers from a wide range of journals – keeping everything as current and up to date as possible. As the first chapter progressed, I was becoming more

    and more aware that this robust but reductionist approach was revealing onlya small, albeit important, facet of synergy; and that to give us a meaningful exploration of how we formulate aromatherapeutic blends, this approach was too narrow. Tis made me reflect upon what makes aromatherapy vibrant and special for us – it is not only about chemistry and biology, but also about our relationships with aroma, the natural world and indeed one another. Aromatherapy is a unique therapy – we are promoting health and wellbeing with aromatic plants, the very same species and scents that were used by our ancestors for healing. We have thousands of years of collective wisdom to help inform our practice, and we can

    explore some of the ancient traditional aromatic formulae too, giving us a deeperinsight into what, exactly, constitutes synergy. It was with this holistic perspective that I proceeded with my work. I broadened

    my vision to integrate concepts of synergy as experienced via the senses, in the natural world, within therapeutic relationships, within perfumery, within our relationships with odours; I explored ‘aromatic signatures’, and how aromatherapy draws upon traditional philosophies to give models for synergistic blending, and how we can gain esoteric insights via meditation on the aromas of essential oils. At this point, I was begi