Are you ready? Cells Central Dogma Enzymes Scientific Method Energy 10 20 10 20 30 40 50 Structure...

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Transcript of Are you ready? Cells Central Dogma Enzymes Scientific Method Energy 10 20 10 20 30 40 50 Structure...

  • Are you ready?

  • CellsCentral DogmaEnzymesScientific MethodEnergy1020101010101020202020304050Structure20304050304050304050304050304050

  • If a cell contains a nucleus, it must be a(n)a. Plantc. prokaryoteb. animald. eukaryoteCell Structure

  • Cell StructureBoth plants and animals have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.

  • Which of the following do not have cell walls?Cell Structureb. plantsd. all prokaryotesc. all eukaryotesa. animals

  • Cell wall is not the same and plasma membrane. The cell wall helps provide structure for a cell. Plants and Prokaryotes have a cell wall.Cell Structure

  • Where does cellular respiration occur?a. chloroplastc. cytoplasmd. nucleusb. mitochondriaCell Structure

  • The mitochondrion is the powerhouse of the cell. Both Plants and Animals have mitochondria.Cell Structure

  • What is the purpose of ribosomes?a. To make DNAc. To transport materials throughout the cellb. To package materialsd. To make proteinsCell Structure

  • Ribosomes make proteins by arranging amino acids according to instructions from RNA location of translation. Ribosomes are found in all cells.Cell Structure

  • What is the function of organelle N?Cell Structureb. Make proteins (cells work-force)a. Make ATP (a cells energy source)d. Make DNA (cells blueprints)c. Make glucose (a cells food)

  • Cell StructurePlants can do photosynthesis because chlorophyll can absorb the suns energy.

  • What is ultimately produced at the end of the processes of the central dogma?Central Dogmac. DNAd. RNAamino acida. protein

  • DNA RNA ProteinCentral Dogma

  • What is produced in transcription?Central Dogmaa. 2 identical DNA moleculesb. tRNAc. proteind. Complementary mRNA

  • Central DogmaTranscription makes mRNA which gets decoded in translation to make proteins.

  • Central Dogmaa. cysteinec. lysined. glycineb. valineWhat amino acid is produced from the mRNA codon: GUC?

  • Codons represent amino acidsCentral Dogma

  • What does a mutation cause?Central Dogmaa. Diseaseb. Inability to make the right proteind. superpowersc. Change in DNA sequence

  • Only mutations that change the amino acid sequence cause disease.Central Dogma

  • Determine the DNA sequence that codes for this polypeptide sequence: tyr proCentral Dogmaa. UAU CCUb. No answer givenc. TAT CCUb. ATA GGG

  • You work backwards: protein mRNA DNACentral Dogma

  • What is the shape of DNA?Structurec. Alpha helixd. helixb. Three stranded helixa. Double helix

  • DNA looks like a twisted ladder.Structure

  • What is the complementary sequence for the DNA strand?ATCGGCStructurec. AUCGGCb. UAGCCGa. CGGCTAd. TAGCCG

  • The two strands of DNA are complementary: They match up.Structure

  • What are the basic building blocks of proteins?a. nucleotidesd. Nitrogenous basesb. tRNAc. Amino acidsStructure

  • Amino acids are the repeating units in protein polymers.Structure

  • What is in RNA and not in DNA?structurea. sugarc. Phosphate groupb. nucleotided. uracil

  • Both DNA and RNA have 4 bases, but U replaces T in RNA.Structure

  • How does ATP store energy?a. When a phosphate is added c. When enzymes move ATP across a cellb. When amino acids connectd. When the bond between two phosphate groups get brokenStructure

  • ATP becomes ADP and releases energy Structure

  • Enzymes are _____ that speed up chemical reactions. a. nucleotidesc. Nucleic acidsb. Energy moleculesd. proteinsEnzymes

  • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze or speed up reactions. Enzymes

  • What causes an enzyme to get denatured?Enzymeb. mutationc. geneticsd. diseasea. Extreme temperature and pH

  • EnzymeDenaturing changes the shape of an enzyme

  • What would happen to the reactions of life if enzymes werent there? Enzymea. They would not occur.b. They would make the wrong material.d. They would occur too fast to get nutrients.c. They would occur too slowly to sustain life

  • EnzymeEnzymes lower the activation energy to speed up reactions.

  • Based on the graph, which of the following could be used to increase the reaction rate beyond point C?Enzymea. decrease enzyme concentrationb. increase the amount of substrate c. add more waterd. increase the amount of substrate

  • EnzymeIncreasing the temperature will increase the rate of reaction.

  • When will both enzymes be active?Enzymea. 80 oCb. alwaysd. neverd. 45 oC

  • EnzymeOptimal is at max. When one enzyme is at its max, the other is inactive.

  • What is the independent variable in the data table?b. Number of Tadpolesc. Amount of watera. There is no independent variabled. pHScientific Method

  • The independent variable is what you change. It is also called the manipulated variable.Scientific Method

  • What can you conclude from the graphs?Scientific Methodb. Enzyme activity does not change as you change temperature and pHa. Enzyme activity increases when you increase the temperature and pHc. Enzymes work best at a specific temperature and pH

  • Temperature, pH and concentration affect enzyme activity.Scientific Method

  • What is a possible hypothesis for experiment summarized in the graph?Scientific Methodd. A plant will grow best with lots of waterc. Heat is damaging to plantsb. Plants need sunlight for photosynthesis.a. Increasing sunlight increases plant growth.

  • Sunlight is on the x-axis so it is the independent variable.Scientific Method

  • Identify the variables:Scientific Methodc. Control: 50 workersIV: stapleDV: juicea. Control: juiceIV: stacks DV: productivityb. Control: Group BIV: volume of special juiceDV: number of stacks

  • Control is a comparison.Independent is what changesDependent is what you look for.Scientific Method

  • In the experiment, what type of variable is the amount of light?a. Independent variableb. Dependent variabled. Constantc. ControlScientific Method

  • Constant and Control are not the same.Constants are things kept the same for each condition.Controls are comparisons.Scientific Method

  • Energy____ is the molecule that stores energy for easy use within the cell.a. ADPd. RNAb. glucosec. ATP

  • EnergyATP is stored ENERGY

  • Which direction does energy flow?Energya. Tree to deer to cougarb. Sun to bear to cougarc. Bird to skunk to insectsd. Rodent to bird to bear

  • Arrows show the flow of energy, food and nutrients from autotrophs to heterotrophs. Energy

  • Which of the following equations best represents photosynthesis?a. 6C + 6H2O C6H12O6c. C + O2 + H2O CO2 + HOHd. C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2Ob. 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Energy

  • 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water = 1 glucose + 6 oxygen6 CO2 + 6 H20 = C6H12O6 + 6 O2Energy

  • In which container is photosynthesis not occurring?a. 1b. 2d. 4c. 3Energy

    ContainerPlantPlant PartLight ColorTemp (C)Increase in O21Geraniumleafred221202Geraniumleafgreen22153Geraniumrootred2204Violetleafred2280

  • The table had a lot of extra information. There were two main ways to find the answer: no oxygen was made, sunlight can not reach roots.Energy

  • How are the chemical reactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?a. Photosynthesis occurs in plants and cellular respiration occurs in animals.d. There is no relationship.b. Photosynthesis makes more ATP. c. Photsynthesis is basically the reverse of cellular respiration.Energy

  • Photosynthesis makes glucose that is needed in cellular respirationEnergy

  • Nile Blue stain a nucleus but prokaryotes don t have one.Hodge Podge

    DyeTestacridine orangestains DNA and RNAosmium tetrozxidestains lipidsEosinstains cell cytoplasmNile Bluestains cell nuclei

  • How much will you wager?

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