Are you ready? Cells Central Dogma Enzymes Scientific Method Energy 10 20 10 20 30 40 50 Structure...
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CellsCentral DogmaEnzymesScientific MethodEnergy1020101010101020202020304050Structure20304050304050304050304050304050
If a cell contains a nucleus, it must be a(n)a. Plantc. prokaryoteb. animald. eukaryoteCell Structure
Cell StructureBoth plants and animals have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.
Which of the following do not have cell walls?Cell Structureb. plantsd. all prokaryotesc. all eukaryotesa. animals
Cell wall is not the same and plasma membrane. The cell wall helps provide structure for a cell. Plants and Prokaryotes have a cell wall.Cell Structure
Where does cellular respiration occur?a. chloroplastc. cytoplasmd. nucleusb. mitochondriaCell Structure
The mitochondrion is the powerhouse of the cell. Both Plants and Animals have mitochondria.Cell Structure
What is the purpose of ribosomes?a. To make DNAc. To transport materials throughout the cellb. To package materialsd. To make proteinsCell Structure
Ribosomes make proteins by arranging amino acids according to instructions from RNA location of translation. Ribosomes are found in all cells.Cell Structure
What is the function of organelle N?Cell Structureb. Make proteins (cells work-force)a. Make ATP (a cells energy source)d. Make DNA (cells blueprints)c. Make glucose (a cells food)
Cell StructurePlants can do photosynthesis because chlorophyll can absorb the suns energy.
What is ultimately produced at the end of the processes of the central dogma?Central Dogmac. DNAd. RNAamino acida. protein
DNA RNA ProteinCentral Dogma
What is produced in transcription?Central Dogmaa. 2 identical DNA moleculesb. tRNAc. proteind. Complementary mRNA
Central DogmaTranscription makes mRNA which gets decoded in translation to make proteins.
Central Dogmaa. cysteinec. lysined. glycineb. valineWhat amino acid is produced from the mRNA codon: GUC?
Codons represent amino acidsCentral Dogma
What does a mutation cause?Central Dogmaa. Diseaseb. Inability to make the right proteind. superpowersc. Change in DNA sequence
Only mutations that change the amino acid sequence cause disease.Central Dogma
Determine the DNA sequence that codes for this polypeptide sequence: tyr proCentral Dogmaa. UAU CCUb. No answer givenc. TAT CCUb. ATA GGG
You work backwards: protein mRNA DNACentral Dogma
What is the shape of DNA?Structurec. Alpha helixd. helixb. Three stranded helixa. Double helix
DNA looks like a twisted ladder.Structure
What is the complementary sequence for the DNA strand?ATCGGCStructurec. AUCGGCb. UAGCCGa. CGGCTAd. TAGCCG
The two strands of DNA are complementary: They match up.Structure
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?a. nucleotidesd. Nitrogenous basesb. tRNAc. Amino acidsStructure
Amino acids are the repeating units in protein polymers.Structure
What is in RNA and not in DNA?structurea. sugarc. Phosphate groupb. nucleotided. uracil
Both DNA and RNA have 4 bases, but U replaces T in RNA.Structure
How does ATP store energy?a. When a phosphate is added c. When enzymes move ATP across a cellb. When amino acids connectd. When the bond between two phosphate groups get brokenStructure
ATP becomes ADP and releases energy Structure
Enzymes are _____ that speed up chemical reactions. a. nucleotidesc. Nucleic acidsb. Energy moleculesd. proteinsEnzymes
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze or speed up reactions. Enzymes
What causes an enzyme to get denatured?Enzymeb. mutationc. geneticsd. diseasea. Extreme temperature and pH
EnzymeDenaturing changes the shape of an enzyme
What would happen to the reactions of life if enzymes werent there? Enzymea. They would not occur.b. They would make the wrong material.d. They would occur too fast to get nutrients.c. They would occur too slowly to sustain life
EnzymeEnzymes lower the activation energy to speed up reactions.
Based on the graph, which of the following could be used to increase the reaction rate beyond point C?Enzymea. decrease enzyme concentrationb. increase the amount of substrate c. add more waterd. increase the amount of substrate
EnzymeIncreasing the temperature will increase the rate of reaction.
When will both enzymes be active?Enzymea. 80 oCb. alwaysd. neverd. 45 oC
EnzymeOptimal is at max. When one enzyme is at its max, the other is inactive.
What is the independent variable in the data table?b. Number of Tadpolesc. Amount of watera. There is no independent variabled. pHScientific Method
The independent variable is what you change. It is also called the manipulated variable.Scientific Method
What can you conclude from the graphs?Scientific Methodb. Enzyme activity does not change as you change temperature and pHa. Enzyme activity increases when you increase the temperature and pHc. Enzymes work best at a specific temperature and pH
Temperature, pH and concentration affect enzyme activity.Scientific Method
What is a possible hypothesis for experiment summarized in the graph?Scientific Methodd. A plant will grow best with lots of waterc. Heat is damaging to plantsb. Plants need sunlight for photosynthesis.a. Increasing sunlight increases plant growth.
Sunlight is on the x-axis so it is the independent variable.Scientific Method
Identify the variables:Scientific Methodc. Control: 50 workersIV: stapleDV: juicea. Control: juiceIV: stacks DV: productivityb. Control: Group BIV: volume of special juiceDV: number of stacks
Control is a comparison.Independent is what changesDependent is what you look for.Scientific Method
In the experiment, what type of variable is the amount of light?a. Independent variableb. Dependent variabled. Constantc. ControlScientific Method
Constant and Control are not the same.Constants are things kept the same for each condition.Controls are comparisons.Scientific Method
Energy____ is the molecule that stores energy for easy use within the cell.a. ADPd. RNAb. glucosec. ATP
EnergyATP is stored ENERGY
Which direction does energy flow?Energya. Tree to deer to cougarb. Sun to bear to cougarc. Bird to skunk to insectsd. Rodent to bird to bear
Arrows show the flow of energy, food and nutrients from autotrophs to heterotrophs. Energy
Which of the following equations best represents photosynthesis?a. 6C + 6H2O C6H12O6c. C + O2 + H2O CO2 + HOHd. C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2Ob. 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Energy
6 carbon dioxide + 6 water = 1 glucose + 6 oxygen6 CO2 + 6 H20 = C6H12O6 + 6 O2Energy
In which container is photosynthesis not occurring?a. 1b. 2d. 4c. 3Energy
ContainerPlantPlant PartLight ColorTemp (C)Increase in O21Geraniumleafred221202Geraniumleafgreen22153Geraniumrootred2204Violetleafred2280
The table had a lot of extra information. There were two main ways to find the answer: no oxygen was made, sunlight can not reach roots.Energy
How are the chemical reactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?a. Photosynthesis occurs in plants and cellular respiration occurs in animals.d. There is no relationship.b. Photosynthesis makes more ATP. c. Photsynthesis is basically the reverse of cellular respiration.Energy
Photosynthesis makes glucose that is needed in cellular respirationEnergy
Nile Blue stain a nucleus but prokaryotes don t have one.Hodge Podge
DyeTestacridine orangestains DNA and RNAosmium tetrozxidestains lipidsEosinstains cell cytoplasmNile Bluestains cell nuclei
How much will you wager?