Appendicular Skeleton The bones of the limbs and their ... ... Appendicular Skeleton = The bones of

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Transcript of Appendicular Skeleton The bones of the limbs and their ... ... Appendicular Skeleton = The bones of

  • Appendicular Skeleton = The bones of the limbs and their Girdles that connect them to the Axial Skeleton.

    Upper extremity Pectoral girdle: clavicle (2) scapula (2)

    Humerus (2) radius (2) ulna (2) carpals (wrist bones) 8 each wrist metacarpals (5 each hand) phalanges (14 each hand)

    Lower extremity Pelvic girdle 2 hip bones (os coxae) ilium (2) ischium (2) pubis (2)

    femur (2) patella (2) tibia (2) fibula (2) tarsals (ankle bones) 7 each ankle metatarsals (5 each foot) phalanges (14 each foot)

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  • Upper extremity connected to the axial skeleton by the Pectoral Girdle: PECTORAL GIRDLE = CLAVICLE + SCAPULA

    ONLY the clavicle has direct contact with the Axial Skeleton –where the clavicle articulates with the manubrium @ the clavicular notches.

    Clavicle Label: 1. sternal end (medial end) 2. acromial end (lateral end)

    Be sure you can tell a right clavicle from a left. I will show you in class.

    Right Left Left superior view smoother side

    Inferior side , rougher side

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  • L Posteriorview L Anterior view Lateral view

    Posterior view :

    1. Spine of scapula 2. Acromion (aka acromion

    process) 3. Superior angle 4. Inferior angle 5. Vertebral (medial) boarder) 6. Axillary (lateral) boarder) 7. Coracoid process 8. Supraspinous fossa 9. Infraspinous fossa

    Anterior view

    6. Axillary boarder 5. Vertebral boarder 3. Superior angle 4. Inferior angle 7. Coracoid process 10. Subscapular fossa

    Scapula

    Lateral View

    11. Glenoid fossa (aka glenoid cavity)

    7. Coracoid process 2. Acromion process 1 . Spine of scapula

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    Posterior view

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    3Acromion of scapula articulates with the acromial end of clavicle

  • Left, anterior view Left, posterior view

    Humerus: Attaches to the Axial Skeleton via head of humerus to Glenoid fossa of scapula

    Anterior view 1. Head 2. Anatomical neck 3. Greater turbercle 4. Lesser tubercle 5. Intertubercular

    groove 6. Surgical neck

    Anterior distal end 7. Medial epicondyle 8. Trochlea 9. Capitulum 10. Lateral epicondyle 11. Coronoid fossa

    Posterior view 12. Head 13. Anatomical neck (draw location) 14. Greater tubercle 15. Surgical neck (draw location) 16. Deltoid tuberosity (hard to see but marked where you would find it. (See it on a Real bone!))

    Distal end: 17. Olecranon fossa 18. Trochlea (wraps from front to back 19. Lateral epicondyle 20. Medial epicondyle

    * NoteTrochlea and capitulum are condyles. What Is a condyle? These condyles articulate with The radius and ulna.

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    1214

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    Note capitulum not seen in posterior view 4

  • Ulna (the medial bone of forearm)

    Left posterior view 1. Olecranon (proximal) 2. styloid process (distal)

    Anterior Proximal view close up: 3. Trochlear notch 4. Coronoid process

    Lateral view (side facing radius)

    5. Olecranon 6. Trochlear notch 7. Radial notch (articulates with Head of radius)

    Note: Trochlear notch- has articular Cartilage, articulates with trochlea of humerus

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    ----2

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    8 ----9

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    Distal end 8. Head 9. Styloid process

  • Radius (Lateral bone of forearm) Your RAD (THUMB side ) bone!!!

    Left anterior view 1. Head 2. Radial Tuberosity 3. Styloid process

    Close up anterior proximal end:

    4. Head 5. Radial tuberosity

    Medial Lateral

    Close up distal anterior end:

    6. Ulnar notch (articulates with head of ulna) Ulnar notch medial side because it articulates with the ulna … the medial bone. Remember- distal end of Radius on anterior side is smooth. Distal end of radius posterior side rough. See this smoothness vs roughness on a real bone! 7. Styloid process

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    Distal end

    Remember you must know if a bone is right or left on a lab practical! Practice with the bones in the lab till it is easy for! The radius and ulna are the “hardest” bones to figure out R and L for students every semester!

  • Left Elbow Joint Putting it all together! Be sure you can articulate a humerus with a radius and ulna bone all from the same side.

    Anterior View (Left bones) Posterior View Medial view

    1. Medial epicondyle 2. Coronoid fossa 3. Lateral epicondyle 4. Trochlea 5. Capitulum

    9. Medial epicondyle 10 . Olecranon (ulna) 11. Head of radius 12. Lateral epicondyle

    13. Trochlear notch (side view) 14. Olecranon (side view) 15. Medial epicondyle

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    Humerus

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    medial lateral

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    Radius 7. Head of radius 8. Radial tuberosity

    Ulna 6. Coronoid process

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  • Left hand: Anterior views

    Thumb is number one!

    Distal end radius and ulna

    Carpal bones: 1. Lunate 2. Scaphoid 3. Trapezium (thumb swings from trapezium)

    Metacarpals: (palm bones) Label metacarpal 1-5 (Thumb is #1)

    Proximal ends articulate with carpal bones. Distal ends articulate with phalanges = Knuckles. Also: Label T for Trapezium S for scaphoid L for Lunate in the next 2 views

    Phalanges: (digits) Proximal phalanges 1-5 Middle phalanges 2-5 Distal phalanges 1-5 Thumb has no middle phalange

    12 3

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    2 3 4 5

    PP1

    DP1

    MP2

    Wrist joint= distal radius + scaphoid + lunate. (scaphoid fractures BAD).

    Note the distal end of ulna has no direct articulation with any carpal bones 8