Appendicular skeleton stds (1)

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  • Appendicular Skeleton

    Tanveer Saeed

    Assistant Professor


  • Appendicular Division

    Girdles with their associated extremities

    Pectoral girdle: clavicle and scapula

    Upper limb: humerus, ulna, radius, carpal

    bones, hand

    Pelvic girdle: Os coxae

    Lower limb: femur, patella, tibia, fibula,

    tarsal bones, foot

  • Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones

    Pectoral girdle

    (Clavicle (2)

    Scapula (2)

    Upper Extremity ( 60 bones)

    Humerus (2)

    Radius (2)

    Ulna (2)

    Carpals (16)

    Metacarpals (10)

    Phalanges (28)

    Pelvic Girdle Coxal, innominate, or hip bones (2)

    Lower Extremity ( 60 bones)

    Femur (2)

    Tibia (2)

    Fibula (2)

    Patella (2)

    Tarsals (14)

    Metatarsals (10)

    Phalanges (28)


    Pectoral Girdle


    Joined to axial skeleton by articulation with sternum (sternoclavicular joint)

    Articulates with scapula (acromioclavicular joint).

  • Pectoral Girdle

    The function of pectoral girdle is to

    attach the upper limbs to the body and

    serves as a point of origin for many

    muscles that move the upper limb

    (humerus), neck and trunk.

  • Clavicle

    Tanveer Saeed

    C. Impression for Costoclavicular Ligament

    Attachment site for the ligament that comes

    from the cartilage of the first rib

    A. Acromial End

    Articulates with the Acromion of the

    Scapula, to form the acromioclavicular


    B. Sternal End

    Articulates with the Manubrium of the

    Sternum Joined to axial skeleton ----

    sternoclavicular joint.

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  • Scapula Shoulder blades.

    Scapula- visible bone in the


    Borders; Medial, Lateral,


    Glenoid cavity forms

    articulation with head of

    humerus. Lateral aspect.

    Spine Sharp ridge running

    diagonally across posterior


    Acromion Process lateral

    end of scapula spine,

    articulates with clavicle

  • Scapula contd

    Coracoid Process projection on anterior

    surface, muscle and ligament attachment.

    Suprascapular notch v shaped on superior

    margin for passage of nerves.

    Infraspinous fossa inferior to spine

    muscle attachment.

    Supraspinous fossa superior to spine,

    muscle attachment.

  • .

    Tanveer Saeed

    Infraspinous fossa

    Supraspinous fossa

    Acromion Process lateral end of

    scapula spine, articulates with clavicle




    Glenoid cavity

    Scapula (Shoulder Blades)


    Coracoid Process

    Suprascapular notch v shaped on

    superior margin for passage of nerves

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    1:50 1:50



  • Left Humerus

    (anterior - distal end of Right humerus)

    1. Medial epicondyle

    2. Trochlea

    3. Capitulum

    4. Coronoid fossa

    5. Radial fossa

    (posterior - distal end of right humerus)

    1. Medial epicondyle

    2. Olecranon fossa 3.


    4. Lateral epicondyle

    Tanveer Saeed

  • Radius and Ulna

    Tanveer Saeed

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  • Ulna and Radius


    Medial forearm bone.

    Trochlea notch

    Olecranon process proximal, posterior elbow

    Coronoid process .

    Radial notch lateral inferior proximal, head of radius articulates.

    Head distal end rounded process articulates with fibrocartilaginous disc at wrist.

    Styloid process distal end posterior surface


    Lateral forearm bone.

    Head proximal end disk shaped, articulates with humeral capitulum, and with radial notch of ulna.

    Radial tuberosity medial proximal aspect

    Ulna notch distal medial aspect

    Styloid process distal end protuberance

  • Hand and wrist Bones

    Proximal row from

    Lateral to medial;



    Distal row L to M;

    trapezium, trapezoid,


    Thumb or pollex contains a proximal and distal only.

    Tanveer Saeed

    The bones of the hand are called the metacarpal bones,these are the long bones that lie within the palm of the hand.

    The metacarpals attach to the phalanges, which are the bones

    in the fingers and thumb.

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  • Lower Extremity

    Pelvic Girdle

    Coxal bones large hip bones sacrum

    and coccyx form basin of pelvic cavity.

    Lower extremities attached to axial


    o Ilium

    o Ischium

    o Pubis

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    Coxal Bone Medial View

  • Innominate Bone


    Superior flaring portion.

    Iliac spines

    ASIS prominent projection, muscle attachment

    AIIS -

    PSIS -

    PIIS -

    Iliac crest superior curving boundary.

    Greater Sciatic Notch posterior inferior surface, passage of sciatic nerve.

    Articular surface roughened posteromedial aspect for articulation of sacrum.

  • Innominate Cont,d

    Ischium Inferior posterior.

    Ischial spine pointed projection just superior to tuberosity, muscle attachment.

    Ischial tuberosity Large roughened surface.


    Medial, anterior section.

    Obturator foramen large opening in anterior surface of os coax formed by pubis and ischium, largest foramen in the body.

    Pubic symphysis cartilaginous joint between pubic bones.


    Articulates with femoral head to form the hip joint, formed

    by union of all three coxa bones, ilium, ischium, and


  • Pelvic Girdle

    Inominate Bone

  • Lower Extremity

    Refer Ross & Wison and Tortora for



    Male and female pelvis

    True and false pelvis

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  • Femur Bone Markings: Head rounded proximal aspect articulates with acetabulum.

    Neck constricted portion just inferior to the head.

    Greater trochanter- protuberance located inferiorly and laterally to the head, muscle attachment.

    Lesser trochanter smaller protuberance located inferiorly and laterally to the head, muscle attachment.

    Lateral condyle distal lateral, large rounded, for articulation with tibia.

    Medial condyle distal medial, large rounded, for articulation with tibia.

    Patellar surface distal, anterior surface for articulation of patella.

    Medial & Lateral epicondyle blunt projections from medial and lateral sides of distal femur just superior to condyles, for muscle attachment.

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  • Patella

    Kneecap, a

    sesamoid bone

    located within

    quadriceps tendon,

    articulates with

    Patella surface of


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    Medial bone of leg, weight bearing.

    Also called the shin bone

    Medial and Lateral condyles bulging prominences at proximal end, combined forms the tibial plateau for articulation with femur.

    Tibial tuberosity anterior proximal bulge just inferior to tibial plateau for attachment of patella tendon.

    Medial malleolus rounded projection points inferiorly at distal end medially, for ligamentous attachment.

    Fibular notch lateral distal aspect,articulates with fibula.


  • (right) the fibula and the tibia, bones of the lower leg.

    Tanveer Saeed

  • Fibula

    Lateral leg bone, NON WEIGHT BEARING.

    It serves as an area for muscle attachment

    Head proximal aspect, medial surface articulates with tibia.

    Lateral malleolus rounded prominence at

    distal end, with medial malleolus locks talus bone in ankle joint.

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  • Bones of the Left Foot (Superior Aspect)

    1. Calcaneus

    2. Talus

    3. Navicular

    4. Cuboid

    5. Cuneiform, First

    6. Cuneiform,


    7. Cuneiform,


    8. Metatarsal

    9. Proximal


    10. Middle Phalange

    11. Distal Phalange

    Tanveer Saeed

  • Tarsus

    Rear foot bones.





    Cuneiforms; medial, intermediate, and lateral.


    Long bones of mid foot numbered 1 to 5 medial to lateral.


    Small long bones of the toes. Digits 2 to 5 contain proximal, middle, and distal. Digit 1 (hallux) contains only proximal and distal.

  • Foot

    Naming and numbering of metatarsals and

    phalanges analogous to hand

    Hallux has only two phalanges

  • Summary of Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb

    Pelvis- pelvic girdle, sacrum, coccyx

    Coxal- ilium, ischium, pubis

    Acetabulium- hip socket

    Femur- upper bone in leg

    Tibia- inner lower leg bone

    Fibula- outer lower leg bone

    Patella- knee cap

    Tarsal bone (metacarpal and phalanges)