Appendicular Skeleton Lecture Notes
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Appendicular Skeleton Lecture Notes
Appendicular Skeleton Lecture Notes
Odon = toothPect = breastPelv= basinSutur= seam
Vert = turn; jointEndo = withinEpi= uponLamina = thin plate
Clavicles are “S” shaped bones that originate at the superior lateral border of the manubrium of the sternum (jugular notches)
Scapulas are flat bones located at the posterior lateral portion of the body.
Brachium and Antebrachium
Brachium = Upper Limb 30 bones per limb Brachium contains the humerus Antebrachium or forearm contains the radius
& ulna (radius on thumb side) Carpus or wrist contains 8 small bones
arranged in two rows Manus or hand contains 19 bones in 2
groups– 5 metacarpals in the palm– 14 phalanges in the fingers
Upper Limbs: (Brachium)
Humerus is a long bone that extends from the scapula to the elbow.
The superior round portion that articulates with the scapula is known as the head
Be able to identify the greater and lesser tubercles…PAGE 242 in AP book. Important site for muscle attachment
Any blow to the ulnar nerve will send a sensation known as a funny bone
BONES OF THE FOREARM (Antebrachium)
The humerus articulates with the radius and ulna at a location known as the condyle
Ulna is a long bone that is medial to the radius.
The olecranon process is the superior end of the ulna and is the point of the elbow
Radius is the lateral bone of the forearm
PAGE 243 in AP book
CARPAL BONES The carpus is the wrist
containing 8 carpal short bones Is this diagram showing
correct anatomical positioning????
Metacarpals are short bones that articulate with the distal carpal bones to support the hand
Roman numerals are used to identify the metacarpals from lateral to medial
Phalanges (14 finger bones) that articulate distally to the metacarpal bones
Thumb is known as the pollex
Checking for understanding!
Skeleton worksheet: Color the axial and appendicular skeleton and then identify ALL the bones of the ENTIRE skeleton.
Use pages 207 and 239 in the A & P book. Colored pencils can be found in the back of
THE PELVIC GIRDLE aka Ossa Coxae
Pubic symphysis made of cartilage
Comparison of Male & Female
Female: less massive, shallower pubic arch greater than 100 degrees, and pelvic inlet round or oval
Male: heavier, upper pelvis nearly vertical, coccyx more vertical, and pelvic inlet heart-shaped, outlet smaller
HINT: Woman’s pelvis must be larger to allow for childbirth.
FEMUR pg 250
Longest and heaviest bone in the body
A triangular Sesamoid bone
Enclosed within the tendons
Guards the knee joint
Tibia and Fibula Tibia- Large medial bone
that articulates with the condyles of the femur and helps support weight
Tibia= shinbone Fibula - Parallels the
lateral border of the tibia and aids in moving the foot and toes
Tarsals, MetaTarsals and phalanges Tarsals= ankle and heel Heel= Calcaneus Metatarsals=middle of
the foot and Roman numerals are used to identify the metatarsals from medial to lateral….this is opposite than the metacarpals
Phalanges- 14 toe bones, the great toe #1 has 2 phalanges and the other 4 toes have 3 phalanges
LATIN TERMS that you will find very helpful in remembering JOINTS!
Arthros = joint Syn = together Amphi = both sides Dia = through Planta = sole In = into
Diarthrosis (synovial joints)
Use pg. 268 in your book to identify the various types of joints and and examples per the human body!
Dislocation (luxation)– Articulating bones are forced out
of position by extreme stress– Can cause damage to cartilage,
ligaments or distort the joint cavity
Subluxation– Partial dislocation– Less severe– “double-jointed” persons more
likely to suffer subluxation
Gliding– 2 surfaces slide past
each other Circumduction Rotation Flexion/extension Supination/pronation Opposition LABEL THE
PICTURES ON YOUR HANDOUT
Inversion/eversion Retraction/protraction Depression/elevation Dorsiflexion/plantar
flexion Lateral flexion Abduction/adduction
Choose ONE of the following terms to “graffiti” on the blank piece of paper:– Appendicular Skeleton– Joints– Pectoral Girdle– Pelvic Girdle– Carpal Bones– Tarsal Bones– Dislocation
On the back, explain what each letter is and how it relates to the term you chose.
Make your graffiti COLORFUL & CREATIVE!!!