AP Notes Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior

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Transcript of AP Notes Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior

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AP Notes Chapter 14 Solutions and Their Behavior Slide 2 Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more components Solute component(s) present in lesser quantity Solvent component present in greater quantity Slide 3 A saturated solution contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature. An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature. Supersaturated Solutions contain more than is possible and are unstable. Slide 4 Liquid Solutions 1. molarity, M Slide 5 2. mass % Slide 6 3. mole fraction, ( A ) Slide 7 4. molality, m Slide 8 Molar Soln Molal Soln Slide 9 Ideal Solution P(A) 0 is the VP of volatile solvent A at a particular temperature Slide 10 Properties of Ideal Solutions if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then P(A) (A) Slide 11 or P(A) = (A). P(A) 0 [Raoults Law] VP Solution Slide 12 Slide 13 for a solution where 2 components are volatile P(T) = P(A) + P(B) = (A). P(A) 0 + (B). P(B) 0 Slide 14 Slide 15 Ideal Solutions Slide 16 Positive deviation Real Solutions Negative deviation Slide 17 Properties of Ideal Solutions if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then P(A) (A) Slide 18 Properties of Ideal Solutions 2. NO volume changes occur during the solution process Slide 19 Properties of Ideal Solutions 3. NO heat is evolved or absorbed during the solution process Slide 20 Raoults Law is valid only for VERY dilute solutions or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions Slide 21 Solubility Factors like dissolves like Slide 22 Slide 23 Polar H 2 O Non-polar I 2 Non-polar CCl 4 Polar H 2 O Non-polar I2 Non-polar CCl 4 Solvent Extraction Slide 24 O // H 2 C-O-C-R | O | // H 2 C-O-C-R | O | // H 2 C-O-C-R a fat + 3 NaOH R = (CH 2 ) 16 CH 3 Slide 25 H 2 C-O-H | H 2 C-O-H | H 2 C-O-H O \\ + 3 R-C-O - Na + a soap Slide 26 Surfactants Surface acting agents Surface acting agents Lowers surface tension Lowers surface tension Enables solvation Enables solvation Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents Slide 27 Temperature Slide 28 SOLIDSSOLIDS Slide 29 GASESGASES Slide 30 Pressure S g = k H P g Henrys Law Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Colligative Properties Slide 34 Property whose magnitude depends solely on the concentration of particles, NOT on the nature of the particles Slide 35 Electrolyte solute that forms ions in solution which conducts a current Slide 36 Non-Electrolyte solute that remains as molecules in solution which does NOT conduct a current Slide 37 molality moles of substance measured through mass before solution process takes place Slide 38 Colligative Properties of Non-Electrolytes Slide 39 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering VP Lowering Slide 40 Slide 41 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering A = solvent ; B = solute A + B = 1 Slide 42 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering A = solvent ; B = solute A + B = 1 A = 1 - B Slide 43 but: P A = A P o A thus: P A = (1 - B ) P o A or: P A = P o A - B P o A Slide 44 NOTE: the lowering of the vapor pressure of the pure solvent A is a function only of B (solute) Slide 45 boiling point temperature where vapor pressure of solvent equals the atmospheric pressure Slide 46 2. Boiling Point Elevation Slide 47 Slide 48 T bp m Slide 49 T bp = k bp m where k bp = a constant that is a function of the solvent Slide 50 units on k bp ? Slide 51 Slide 52 Freezing Water Freezing Solution 3. Freezing Point Depression Slide 53 T fp m Slide 54 T fp k fp m k fp = freezing point constant Slide 55 Slide 56 k fp = k bp for the same solvent Slide 57 OSMOSIS the flow of solvent into a solution through a semi-permeable membrane Slide 58 Examples Egg Rxn Microscopic Perspective Egg Explanation Macroscopic Perspective Slide 59 4. Osmotic Pressure the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis Slide 60 Slide 61 Slide 62 Reverse Osmosis Slide 63 4. Osmotic Pressure = osmotic pressure V = n B R T Slide 64 or = M B R T M B = Molarity of solute Slide 65 Colligative Properties of Electrolytes Slide 66 Must adjust for degree of dissociation Slide 67 Slide 68 i = vant Hoff factor T bp = i k bp m T fp = i k fp m = i Slide 69 Compound i NaCl MgSO 4 MgCl 2 FeCl 3 Slide 70 Compound i NaCl 1.9 MgSO 4 1.3 MgCl 2 2.7 FeCl 3 3.4 Slide 71