AP Biology - Montgomery Independent School AP Biology AP Biology What have we done! AP Biology...

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Transcript of AP Biology - Montgomery Independent School AP Biology AP Biology What have we done! AP Biology...

  • 1

    AP Biology

    AP Biology

    Earth’s biomes

    AP Biology

    Environmental factors

     Abiotic factors

     non-living chemical & physical factors

     temperature

     light

     water

     nutrients

     Biotic factors

     living components

     animals

     plants

    AP Biology

    Marine

    intertidal

    coral reef

    benthos

    AP Biology

    Tropical rainforest

    distribution: equatorial

    precipitation: very wet

    temperature: always warm

    characteristics: many plants & animals, thin soil

    AP Biology

    Savanna

    distribution: equatorial

    precipitation: seasonal, dry season/wet season

    temperature: always warm

    characteristics: fire-adapted, drought tolerant plants; herbivores; fertile soil

    AP Biology

    Desert

    distribution: 30°N & S latitude band

    precipitation: almost

    temperature: variable daily & seasonally, hot & cold

    characteristics: sparse vegetation & animals, cacti, succulents, drought tolerant, reptiles, insects, rodents, birds

  • 2

    AP Biology

    AP Biology

    Temperate Grassland

    distribution: mid-latitudes, mid-continents

    precipitation: seasonal, dry season/wet season

    temperature: cold winters/hot summers

    characteristics: prairie grasses, fire-adapted, drought tolerant

    plants; many herbivores; deep, fertile soil AP Biology

    Temperate Deciduous Forest

    distribution: mid-latitude, northern hemisphere

    precipitation: adequate, summer rains, winter snow

    temperature: moderate warm summer/cool winter

    characteristics: many mammals, insects, birds, etc.; deciduous trees; fertile soils

    AP Biology

    Coniferous Forest (Taiga)

    distribution: high-latitude, northern hemisphere

    precipitation: adequate to dry

    temperature: cool year round

    characteristics: conifers; diverse mammals, birds, insects, etc. AP Biology

    Chaparral

    distribution: coastal mid-latitude

    precipitation: seasonal, dry summer/rainy winter

    temperature: hot summer/cool winter

    characteristics: scrubby vegetation, drought-adapted, fire- adapted, herbivores, amphibians, birds, insects

    AP Biology

    Arctic Tundra

    distribution: arctic, high-latitude, northern hemisphere

    precipitation: dry

    temperature: cold year round

    characteristics: permafrost, lichens & mosses, migrating animals & resident herbivores AP Biology

    Alpine Tundra

    distribution: high elevation at all latitudes

    precipitation: dry

    temperature: cold year round

    characteristics: permafrost, lichens, mosses, grasses; migrating animals & resident herbivores

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    AP Biology

    AP Biology

    What have we done!

    AP Biology

    Impact of ecology as a science

     Ecology provides a scientific context for evaluating environmental issues

     Rachel Carson, in 1962, in her book, Silent Spring, warned that use of pesticides such as DDT was causing population declines in many non-target organisms

    AP Biology

    Barry Commoner’s Laws of Ecology  Everything is connected to everything else

     Everything must go somewhere

     there is no such place as “away”

     Nature knows best

     There is no such thing as a free lunch

    Laws of Unintended Consequences

    AP Biology

    Acid Precipitation  nitrogen oxides

     sulfur dioxide

     power plants

     industry

     transportation

    AP Biology Acid rain AP Biology

    BioMagnification

     Energy pyramid

     toxins concentrate

    as they move up

    the food chain

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    AP Biology

    AP Biology

    BioMagnification

     PCBs

     General Electric

    manufacturing

    plant on Hudson

    River

     PCBs in sediment

     striped bass

    nesting areas

    AP Biology

    Carbon Dioxide

    Global Warming

    AP Biology

    CO2 NOx methane

    AP Biology

    Ozone Depletion

    ozone protects from UV rays

    CFCs = coolants

    AP Biology

    Ozone Depletion

    AP Biology

    Bad ozone vs. good ozone

    ozone in smog

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    AP Biology

    AP Biology

    Deforestation  Loss of habitat

     Loss of biodiversity

     Loss of stability

    AP Biology

    Loss of Diversity

     3 levels of biodiversity

     genetic diversity

     inbreeding with

    shrinking populations

     community diversity

     mix of species

     ecosystem diversity

     different habitats

    across landscape

     All decreased by

    human activity

    AP Biology

    Driven to extinction

    AP Biology

    Introduced species

     Non-native species

     transplanted populations grow

    exponentially in new area

     non-native species

    out-compete native species

     lack of competitors & predators

     reduce diversity

    kudzu

    gypsy moth

    Zebra

    mussel

    purple

    loosestrife

    AP Biology

    Overexploitation North Atlantic bluefin tuna

     Loss of food resource for higher levels on food chain

     Loss of biodiversity

     Loss of keystone species?

     Loss of stability AP Biology

    Fragmented habitat

     Loss of habitat

     Loss of food resource for higher levels on food chain

     Loss of biodiversity

     Loss of stability

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    AP Biology

    AP Biology

    Biodiversity hot spots

    Restoration projects AP Biology

    Think Globally, Act Locally

    Any Questions??