AP Biology Ecosystems - Mrs. Tyler's Advanced .AP Biology Ecosystems. AP Biology biosphere ......

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Transcript of AP Biology Ecosystems - Mrs. Tyler's Advanced .AP Biology Ecosystems. AP Biology biosphere ......

  • AP Biology Ecosystems

  • AP Biologybiosphere

    ecosystem

    community

    population

    Studying organisms in their environment

    organism

  • AP Biology

    Essential questions! What limits the production in ecosystems?! How do nutrients move through the

    ecosystem?

    ! How are humans disrupting the biosphere?

  • AP Biology

    Ecosystem! All the organisms in a community plus abiotic

    factors" ecosystems are transformers of energy

    & processors of matter

    ! Ecosystems are self-sustaining" what is needed?

    ! capture energy! transfer energy! cycle nutrients

  • AP Biologybiosphere

    Ecosystem inputs

    constant inputof energy

    energy flowsthrough

    nutrients cycle

    nutrients can only

    cycle

    inputs! energy! nutrients

    Dont forgetthe laws of Physics!

    Matter cannotbe created or

    destroyed

  • AP Biology

    consumers

    decomposers

    abioticreservoir

    nutrientsmade availableto producers

    geologicprocesses

    Nutrientcycling

    consumers

    consumers

    producers

    decomposers

    abioticreservoir

    nutrientsmade availableto producers

    geologicprocesses

    Decompositionconnects all

    trophic levels

  • AP Biology

    Carbon cycleCO2 in

    atmosphere

    Diffusion RespirationPhotosynthesis

    Photosynthesis

    Plants and algae

    PlantsAnimals

    Industry and home

    Combustion of fuels

    Animals

    Carbonates in sediment

    Bicarbonates

    Deposition ofdead material

    Depositionof deadmaterial

    Fossil fuels(oil, gas, coal)

    Dissolved CO2

  • AP Biology

    Birds

    Herbivores

    Plants

    amino acids

    CarnivoresAtmospheric

    nitrogen

    loss to deep sediments

    Fish

    Plankton withnitrogen-fixingbacteria

    Nitrogen-fixingbacteria

    (plant roots)

    Nitrogen-fixingbacteria

    (soil)

    Denitrifyingbacteria

    Death, excretion, feces

    Nitrifying bacteria

    soil nitrates

    excretion

    Decomposing bacteria

    Ammonifying bacteria

    Nitrogen cycle

  • AP Biology

    Phosphorus cycle

    Loss to deep sediment

    Rocks andminerals

    Soluble soilphosphate

    Plants andalgae

    Plants Urine

    Land animals

    Precipitates

    Aquaticanimals

    Animal tissueand feces

    Animal tissueand feces

    Decomposers(bacteria and

    fungi)

    Decomposers(bacteria & fungi)

    Phosphatesin solution

    Loss indrainage

  • AP Biology

    Lakes

    Runoff

    Percolation in soil

    Evaporation

    Transpiration

    Precipitation

    Oceans

    Solar energy

    AquiferGroundwater

    Water cycle

    Water vapor

  • AP Biology

    Breaking the water cycle! Deforestation breaks the water cycle

    " groundwater is not transpired to theatmosphere, so precipitation is notcreated

    forest desert

  • AP BiologyWangari Maathai

    Repairing the damage! The Greenbelt Movement

    " planting trees in Kenya

    " restoring a sustainable ecosystem

    " establishing democracy

    " empowering women

    Nobel Peace prize 2004

  • AP Biology

    Effects of deforestationC

    on

    cen

    trat

    ion

    of

    nit

    rate

    (m

    g/l

    )

    1965 1966Year

    2

    0

    4

    40

    80

    1967 1968

    Deforestation

    nitrate levels

    40% increase in runoff" loss of water

    ! 60x loss in nitrogen! 10x loss in calcium

    loss into surface water

  • AP Biology

    Energy flows through ecosystems

    sun

    producers (plants)

    loss of energy

    loss of energy

    secondary consumers(carnivores)

    primary consumers(herbivores)

  • AP Biology

    ! Feeding relationships" start with energy

    from the sun

    " 1st level of all foodchains is plants

    " most food chainsusually go uponly 4 or 5 levels

    " all levels connect todecomposers

    Food chains

    Fungi

    Level 4

    Level 3

    Level 2

    Level 1

    Decomposers

    Producer

    Primary consumer

    Secondary consumer

    Tertiary consumer

    top carnivore

    carnivore

    herbivore

    Sun

    Bacteria

  • AP Biology

    Food webs

    ! Food chains arelinked together intofood webs

    ! Who eats whom?" a species may

    weave into web atmore than one level! bears! humans

    # eating meat?# eating plants?

  • AP BiologyTertiary

    consumerPrimary

    consumerPrimary producer

    Secondaryconsumer

    Trophic structure! Food chains

    " feeding relationships" food chain usually 4 or 5 links

    ! trophic levels

    " length of food chain limited byinefficiency of energy transfer! how much energy lost from one level to next

    sun

  • AP Biology

    Energy transfer! Loss of energy between levels of food chain

    " To where is the energy lost? The cost of living!

    only this energymoves on to the

    next level in the food chain

    17%growth

    50%waste (feces)

    33%cellularrespiration

    energy lost todaily living

    energy lost todaily living

    sun

  • AP Biology

    Ecological pyramid! Loss of energy between levels of food chain

    " can feed fewer animals in each level

    1,000,000,000

    100,000

    100

    1

    Numbers

    sun

  • Humans in food chains! Dynamics of energy through ecosystems have

    important implications for human populations" how much energy does it take to feed a human?

    ! if we are meat eaters?! if we are vegetarian?

  • AP Biology

    Nutrients & trophic levels! Energy flows through

    but nutrients cycle

    " must be recycled to beavailable for the nextgeneration

    " decomposers returnnutrients to the soilafter creatures die! fungi

    ! bacteria

    nutrients

    decomposers