AP Biology 2008-2009 Circulatory Systems AP Biology

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Slide 2 AP Biology 2008-2009 Circulatory Systems Slide 3 AP Biology Slide 4 Exchange of materials Animal cells exchange material across their cell membrane fuels for energy nutrients oxygen waste (urea, CO 2 ) If you are a 1-cell organism thats easy! diffusion If you are many-celled thats harder Slide 5 AP Biology Overcoming limitations of diffusion O2O2 CHO aa CH CO 2 NH 3 aa O2O2 CH aa CO 2 NH 3 O2O2 aa CH aa CHO O2O2 Diffusion is not adequate for moving material across more than 1-cell barrier Slide 6 AP Biology In circulation What needs to be transported nutrients & fuels from digestive system respiratory gases O 2 & CO 2 from & to gas exchange systems: lungs, gills intracellular waste waste products from cells water, salts, nitrogenous wastes (urea) protective agents immune defenses white blood cells & antibodies blood clotting agents regulatory molecules hormones Slide 7 AP Biology BLOOD!!! What is it good for???? 55% of blood volume = plasma 45% of blood volume = cells, platelets ERYTHROCYTES (rbcs) Last about 120 days No organelles! Produced in red bone marrow, sternum, ribs, some long bones old rbcs removed by spleen and liver Hemoglobin on rbcs is what carries O 2 -> lack of hemoglobin = anemia Each rbc has 280 million molecules of hemoglobin. How many hem. mol. in your body if have 5 million rbcs per mL of blood and usually have body volume of 5L? AP Biology Exchange across capillary walls Arteriole Blood flow Venule Lymphatic capillary Interstitial fluid Fluid & solutes flows out of capillaries to tissues due to blood pressure bulk flow Interstitial fluid flows back into capillaries due to osmosis plasma proteins osmotic pressure in capillary BP > OPBP < OP 15% fluid returns via lymph 85% fluid returns to capillaries What about edema? Capillary Slide 23 AP Biology Lymphatic system Parallel circulatory system transports white blood cells defending against infection collects interstitial fluid & returns to blood maintains volume & protein concentration of blood drains into circulatory system near junction of vena cava & right atrium Slide 24 AP Biology Lymph system Production & transport of WBCs Traps foreign invaders lymph node lymph vessels (intertwined amongst blood vessels) Slide 25 AP Biology Mammalian circulation What do blue vs. red areas represent? pulmonary systemic Slide 26 AP Biology Mammalian heart Coronary arteries to neck & head & arms Slide 27 AP Biology Coronary arteries bypass surgery Slide 28 AP Biology AV SL AV Heart valves 4 valves in the heart flaps of connective tissue prevent backflow Atrioventricular (AV) valve between atrium & ventricle keeps blood from flowing back into atria when ventricles contract lub Semilunar valves between ventricle & arteries prevent backflow from arteries into ventricles while they are relaxing dub Slide 29 AP Biology AV SL AV Lub-dub, lub-dub Heart sounds closing of valves Lub recoil of blood against closed AV valves Dub recoil of blood against semilunar valves Heart murmur defect in valves causes hissing sound when stream of blood squirts backward through valve Slide 30 AP Biology With every beat of your heart. Watch me go! SA (Sinoatrial) node (pacemaker) = in wall of right atrium when this fires, action potential spreads to both atria via gap junctions in intercalated discs AV (Atrioventricular) node = in lower right atrium acts as delay/relay sends message to ventricles to contract Cardiac center in medulla communicates with heart to regulate (hormones can speed up/slow down) Slide 31 AP Biology Issues of the heart What Women ThinkThe Facts 60% Cancers35% Heart disease 19% Heart disease23% All cancers 13% Dont know(4% breast) 4% Other causes20% Other causes 2%Stress8% Strokes 1% Old age4% Pulmonary dis. 1% Smoking4% Pneumonia/flu 3% Accidents 3% Diabetes What actually kills women???? Slide 32 AP Biology Issues of the heart cont. Heart murmur improper closing of heart valve(s) can lead to need for repair/replacement Cardiomegaly enlarged heart ranges from mild to severe (need for replacement) hole in heart improper closing of septum between L and R ventricles (open before birth b/c babies dont need lungs until born) foramen ovale Hypoplasia only one side of heart functions properly Brugada Syndrome sudden cardiac death irregular heart rhythms (genetic) Mitral stenosis narrowing of mitral valve decreased blood flow to body SO MANY MORE -CHECK THEM OUT Slide 33 AP Biology Cardiac cycle systolic ________ diastolic pump (peak pressure) _________________ fill (minimum pressure) 1 complete sequence of pumping heart contracts & pumps heart relaxes & chambers fill contraction phase systole ventricles pumps blood out relaxation phase diastole atria refill with blood 110 ____ 70 Slide 34 AP Biology Measurement of blood pressure High Blood Pressure (hypertension) if top number ( systolic pumping) > 150 if bottom number ( diastolic filling) > 90 Slide 35 AP Biology 2008-2009 Bloody well ask some questions, already!