Anxiety and Stress. Anxiety Apprehension Anticipatory - “Anxious...

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Anxiety and Stress Slide 2 Anxiety Apprehension Anticipatory - Anxious Apprehension Future-oriented mood state in which one is ready or prepared to attempt to cope with upcoming negative events. State of undirected arousal following perception of threat Slide 3 Anxiety: It is an emotion? Specific event Physiological arousal Subjective feelings Behavior Cognitive Appraisals How are fear and anxiety different? Slide 4 FearAnxiety Cognitive Appraisals Something bad now, very soon Something bad in the future Cognitive Appraisals Controllable, Novel, Unexpected, Can Cope, Close in Time. Uncontrollable, Unexpected, Cant Cope, Far In Time PhysiologyWeak limbs, heart races, dry mouth Tension BehaviorFlee, desire to escape, can cope successfully! Limited responses, cant cope, dont know how to cope Subjective Feelings Unpleasant, highly arousing Unpleasant highly arousing, helplessness TimingOccurs post-stimulusOccurs pre-stimulus Slide 5 Attention: Fear vs. Anxiety Fear: Focuses our attention to threatening stimuli Post-Stimulus Anxiety: Focuses our attention to threatening stimuli Maintains our attention to threatening stimuli, especially highly fearful stimuli Pre-stimulus Slide 6 Genetic Structure: Anxiety vs. Fear Fear Animal Phobia Situational Phobia Anxiety Social Phobia Panic & Agor. PTSDGADDepression (Hettema et al., 2005 ) Slide 7 Brain Activation: Anxiety versus Fear (Davis & colleagues, 1998, 2003) Slide 8 When fear becomes anxiety Anxiety = unresolved fear When the coping attempts for fear fail Often in uncontrollable situation Slide 9 Is Anxiety a Basic Emotion? A few say yes! Grays BIS More say no! Ekman, Izard, and Williams James! No universal facial expressions. But, universal appraisals. Slide 10 Physiological Changes SNS Activated PNS Activated What can anxiety disorders tell us about physiological changes of anxiety? Slide 11 With PTSD Without PTSD With Previous PTSD Physiological Measures Slide 12 Slide 13 Subjective Feelings Slide 14 Slide 15 Physiological Arousal Fear Response Anxiety Response Combo! Slide 16 What is the purpose of anxiety? Automatic Processing: To detect/anticipate potential threats in our environment Maintains our attention toward threatening stimuli (less likely to disengage) To be aware of objects we consider most dangerous (e.g., phobias) Slide 17 Automatic Processing and Threat Detection Automatic, non-conscious mental activity gives us early warning system for detecting threat Implication: You can know and not know something at the same time--not know it consciously, know it unconsciously Basic technique: Backward masking Slide 18 1. Present picture of threatening stimulus very quickly (30 milliseconds) 2. Immediately after threat photo is shown, show a non-threatening picture. The second picture is a mask, blocks first picture from consciousness. 3. Reaction to first (masked) picture indicates unconscious processing Backward Masking Slide 19 Automatic Processing of Fearful Stimuli: Results of Masked Stimuli Only Slide 20 Anxiety Maintains Attention / Harder to Disengage Dot Probe Detection Paradigm Present two words above a cross. Words were threatening or neutral. Position of words varied. A dot replaces one of two words. Sometimes dot replaces threatening word. Sometimes dot replaces neutral word. Told to read top word aloud. Press button when see the dot. Measure reaction time to locating dot. Slide 21 Dot probe detection paradigm Slide 22 AGONY FLOOR Slide 23 Dot probe detection paradigm Slide 24 Slide 25 AGONY FLOOR Slide 26 Dot probe detection paradigm Slide 27 (MacLeod et al., 1986) Anxiety Maintains Attention / Harder to Disengage Slide 28 Dot probe detection paradigm (Bradley et al., 1998) Slide 29 Dot probe detection paradigm Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Fear or Anxiety? Cut the rope! How to sing Cinderella Man Jurassic Park Slide 33 Anxiety: It is an emotion? Specific event Physiological arousal Behavior Appraisals Subjective feelings Slide 34 Is stress an emotion? Specific event Physiological arousal Behavior Appraisals Subjective feelings 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood34 Slide 35 UNPLEASANT PLEASANT ACTIVATION DEACTIVATION 1 2 3 4 PIN YOUR ANSWER! INTRO VIDEO Slide 36 Low NA PLEASANT High PA Low PA Strong Engagement Disengagement High NA UNPLEASANT 7 3 5 6 2 4 1 8 PIN YOUR ANSWER! Slide 37 Views of Stress Seyle: stress is a response to significant changes in life events Stress is a Basic Emotion! Lazarus: stress is our interpretation of an event as threatening PLUS our perceived ability to cope Stress is a mixed emotion! 37 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 38 GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (Selye, 1974) 38 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Evidence for GAS: Cortisol Slide 39 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood39 Action Unit 4 Brow Lowerer Action Unit 25 Lips part Action Unit 26 Jaws Drop Action Unit 12 Lip Corner Pull Lazarus Slide 40 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood40 ** *** (Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004) Cortisol Changes Onset of Stressor Slide 41 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood41 *** Cortisol Recovery (Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004) Evidence for GAS: Vagal Tone Slide 42 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood42 (Fabes & Eisenberg, 1997) Slide 43 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood43 (Fabes & Eisenberg, 1997) Slide 44 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood44 (Fabes & Eisenberg, 1997) Slide 45 Primary Appraisal: perceive a threat to oneself Secondary Appraisal: assess whether one has the resources to cope with the threat Coping: process of executing a response to the stressor. (Lazarus, 1966; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) 45 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Slide 46 Primary Appraisal: Not passing my qualifying exams Secondary Appraisal: Can I handle this? I can make a study schedule! Coping: Study everyday from 8-5 and take off on Wednesday (Lazarus, 1966; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) 46 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood Evidence for Lazarus Slide 47 Think about your first exam. 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood47 Anticipating the exam Emotions? Thursday Waiting for your grade Emotions? Saturday Good grade! Emotions? Tuesday Slide 48 Think about your first exam. 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood48 Anticipating the exam Emotions? Thursday Waiting for your grade Emotions? Saturday Good grade or bad grade? Emotions? Tuesday Slide 49 4 Types of Stress Emotions AppraisalEmotion ThreatWorried, fearful, anxious ChallengeConfident, hopeful, eager HarmAngry, sad, disappointed, guilty, disgusted BenefitExhilarated, pleased, happy, relieved 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood49 (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) Slide 50 Stress is an unfolding process Anticipatory Stage 2 days before mid-term T1 Waiting Stage 5 days after mid-term T2 Outcome Stage 2 days before grades announced T3 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood50 (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) Slide 51 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood51 AppraisalEmotion ThreatWorried, fearful, anxious ChallengeConfident, hopeful, eager (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) Slide 52 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood52 AppraisalEmotion HarmAngry, sad, disappointed, guilty, disgusted BenefitExhilarated, pleased, happy, relieved (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) Evidence for Lazarus: Coping Slide 53 ANS Activity Varies with Appraisal Threat Appraisal Increases in SNS arousal (increased cardiac activity) Increases in PNS resistance(increased blood pressure) Challenge Appraisal Increases in SNS arousal (increased cardiac activity) Reduced or unchanged PNS activity 2015 M. Guthrie Yarwood53 Slide 54 UNPLEASANT PLEASANT ACTIVATION DEACTIVATION 1 2 3 4 Do you want to change your answer? Slide 55 Low NA PLEASANT High PA Low PA Strong Engagement Disengagement High NA UNPLEASANT 7 3 5 6 2 4 1 8 Slide 56 THREATCHALLENGE Slide 57 HARM BENEFIT relieved Slide 58 THREAT CHALLENGE Slide 59 HARM BENEFIT relieved