Anwar abbas laghari
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Literacy Literacy is typically described as the ability to read
and write and UNESCO considers literacy as the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Pakistan defines literacy as the acquisition of basic skills of reading and writing.
Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM)- Survey 2013-14 In 2013-14, the literacy rate
of the population (10 years and above) is 58% as compared to 60% in 2012-13 showing a decline of 2.0%.
The data also shows thatliteracy remains :
higher in urban areas 74% rural areas 49%, and more prevalent for men
81.0 % compared to women 66.0% in urban areas.
Province wise data:suggests that Punjab leads with 61%
followed by Sindh with 56%.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with 53% and Balochistan with 43%.
Why Literacy is Important?
A Human Right: Literacy is a basic human right (Atricle 26 of
Universal Declaration of Human Rights -1948)
A basis for learning: Literacy is a foundation for all further learning
Society Benefit: individual and social benefits, reduces conservatism
and intolerance, connects individuals to the global trends and thinking
Six Goals of Dakar - EFA 1. ECCE - Early Childhood care
2. UPE - Free and compulsory
basic education .
3. Learning opportunities for
Young & Adults.
4. Literacy Rate (50%
5. Gender equality - elimination
of gender disparities.
6. Quality of education -
The figures are alarming as under the United Nations MDGs, Pakistan was required to increase its literacy rate to 88% by 2015.
Under National Education Policy (2009), Pakistan pledges to raise budgetary allocations for education to 7% of the GDP, and achieve 86% literacy by 2015.NFBE (Non-Formal Basic Education).
International Commitments EFA : Pakistan is signatory to EFA and MDGs - Literacy is one
of the six Goals of EFA
Target: 88% literacy to be achieved by 2015 (National Plan of Action for EFA - Ministry of Education, 2003)
UN Literacy Decade (2003-2012): Pakistan reflected achievement of UNLD goals in its PRSP-1
LIFE : Pakistan has agreed to launch Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE) in 2005.
PRSP : EFA and Literacy are part of Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP II)
Conditions of Literacy Programs in Pakistan
1. Commitment gap: Lack of Political Will funds were sanctioned but politicians could not provide leadership politicization of literacy projects
2. Policy Gap: A clear and strong policy on Literacy and NFBE has been missing: Lack of administrative will open and disguised opposition to Literacy & NFBE by the traditional planners.
3. Organizational Gap: Absence of permanent organizational structure led to coordination gap
4. Financial Resources Gap: limited financial assistance, and uncertainty about funding
5. Technical Capacity Gap: weak professional base /continuity of experience/independent research and evaluation studies
Transition Rate and Effective Transition Rates from respective years
LIFE: UNESCO support for Literacy
LIFE (Literacy Initiative for Empowerment) launched by UNESCO in 36 countries- with literacy rate below 50% or illiterate population above 10 million
Country Action Plan for Literacy: Pakistan has committed for LIFE - including launching of a national literacy programme
Technical Assistance: UNESCO is providing support to Pakistan for formulation of a policy on literacy and capacity development
Why Pakistan need literacy movement. UNESCO March 2012.