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  • ANSYS Mechanical APDL Feature Archive

    Release 14.5ANSYS, Inc.October 2012Southpointe

    275 Technology DriveCanonsburg, PA 15317 ANSYS, Inc. is

    certified to ISO9001:2008.

    [email protected]://www.ansys.com(T) 724-746-3304(F) 724-514-9494

  • Copyright and Trademark Information

    2012 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use, distribution or duplication is prohibited.

    ANSYS, ANSYS Workbench, Ansoft, AUTODYN, EKM, Engineering Knowledge Manager, CFX, FLUENT, HFSS and anyand all ANSYS, Inc. brand, product, service and feature names, logos and slogans are registered trademarks ortrademarks of ANSYS, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark usedby ANSYS, Inc. under license. CFX is a trademark of Sony Corporation in Japan. All other brand, product, serviceand feature names or trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

    Disclaimer Notice

    THIS ANSYS SOFTWARE PRODUCT AND PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION INCLUDE TRADE SECRETS AND ARE CONFID-ENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS OF ANSYS, INC., ITS SUBSIDIARIES, OR LICENSORS. The software productsand documentation are furnished by ANSYS, Inc., its subsidiaries, or affiliates under a software license agreementthat contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, compliance with exportinglaws, warranties, disclaimers, limitations of liability, and remedies, and other provisions. The software productsand documentation may be used, disclosed, transferred, or copied only in accordance with the terms and conditionsof that software license agreement.

    ANSYS, Inc. is certified to ISO 9001:2008.

    U.S. Government Rights

    For U.S. Government users, except as specifically granted by the ANSYS, Inc. software license agreement, the use,duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to restrictions stated in the ANSYS, Inc.software license agreement and FAR 12.212 (for non-DOD licenses).

    Third-Party Software

    See the legal information in the product help files for the complete Legal Notice for ANSYS proprietary softwareand third-party software. If you are unable to access the Legal Notice, please contact ANSYS, Inc.

    Published in the U.S.A.

  • Table of Contents

    About This Archive .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiI. Legacy Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1. Piping Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1. What the Piping Commands Can Do for You .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2. Modeling Piping Systems with Piping Commands .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    1.2.1. Specify the Jobname and Title ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.2. Set Up the Basic Piping Data .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.3. Define the Piping System's Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    1.2.3.1. Review and Modify Your Piping Model ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.3. Example Piping Model Input .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    2. Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.1. Creep Subroutine UserCr .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2. Subroutine UserPL (Writing Your Own Plasticity Laws) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.3. Subroutine UserVisLaw (Defining Viscosity Laws) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.4. Subroutine usflex (Computes the flexibility factor for PIPE16 and PIPE18) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    3. Restarting a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.1. Singleframe Restart ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    3.1.1. Singleframe Restart Requirements .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.1.2. Singleframe Restart Procedure .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.1.3. Restarting a Nonlinear Analysis From an Incompatible Database .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    3.1.3.1. Re-establishing Boundary Conditions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194. Partial Solution Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    4.1. Partial Inertia Relief Calculations .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.2. Comparison of Linear Perturbation and Partial Solution Procedures .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    5. Surface Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256. Reduced Modal Analysis Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    II. Legacy Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29III. Legacy Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    1. Anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812. Multilinear Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

    IV. Legacy Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854. BEAM4: 3-D Elastic Beam ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8712. CONTAC12: 2-D Point-to-Point Contact ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10116. PIPE16: Elastic Straight Pipe .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10918. PIPE18: Elastic Curved Pipe .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12142. PLANE42: 2-D Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13145. SOLID45: 3-D Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13952. CONTAC52: 3-D Point-to-Point Contact ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14959. PIPE59: Immersed Pipe or Cable .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15763. SHELL63: Elastic Shell .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17579. FLUID79: 2-D Contained Fluid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18580. FLUID80: 3-D Contained Fluid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18981. FLUID81: Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19582. PLANE82: 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20192. SOLID92: 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20995. SOLID95: 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

    V. Legacy Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2231. Archived Theory Element Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

    1.1. BEAM4 - 3-D Elastic Beam ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2251.1.1. Stiffness and Mass Matrices .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

    iiiRelease 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

  • 1.1.2. Gyroscopic Damping Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2291.1.3. Pressure and Temperature Load Vector ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2291.1.4. Local to Global Conversion .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2291.1.5. Stress Calculations .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

    1.2. CONTAC12 - 2-D Point-to-Point Contact ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2321.2.1. Element Matrices .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2321.2.2. Orientation of the Element .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2341.2.3. Rigid Coulomb Friction .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

    1.3. PIPE16 - Elastic Straight Pipe .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2351.3.1. Assumptions and Restrictions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2361.3.2. Stiffness Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2361.3.3. Mass Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2361.3.4. Gyroscopic Damping Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2371.3.5. Load Vector ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2381.3.6. Stress Calculation .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

    1.4. PIPE18 - Elastic Curved Pipe .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2461.4.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2461.4.2. Stiffness Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2461.4.3. Mass Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2491.4.4. Load Vector ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2501.4.5. Stress Calculations .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

    1.5. PLANE42 - 2-D Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2511.5.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

    1.6. SOLID45 - 3-D Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2521.6.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

    1.7. CONTAC52 - 3-D Point-to-Point Contact ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2531.7.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2531.7.2. Element Matrices .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2531.7.3. Orientation of Element .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

    1.8. PIPE59 - Immersed Pipe or Cable .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2551.8.1. Overview of the Element .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2561.8.2. Location of the Element .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2561.8.3. Stiffness Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2571.8.4. Mass Matrix ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2571.8.5. Load Vector ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2581.8.6. Hydrostatic Effects ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2581.8.7. Hydrodynamic Effects ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2601.8.8. Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

    1.9. SHELL63 - Elastic Shell .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2621.9.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2631.9.2. Foundation Stiffness .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2631.9.3. In-Plane Rotational Stiffness .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2641.9.4. Warping .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2641.9.5. Options for Non-Uniform Material ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2651.9.6. Extrapolation of Results to the Nodes .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

    1.10. FLUID79 - 2-D Contained Fluid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2661.10.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

    1.11. FLUID80 - 3-D Contained Fluid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2671.11.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2681.11.2. Assumptions and Restrictions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2681.11.3. Material Properties ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2681.11.4. Free Surface Effects ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

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    Feature Archive

  • 1.11.5. Other Assumptions and Limitations .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2701.12. FLUID81 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic Contained Fluid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

    1.12.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2721.12.2. Assumptions and Restrictions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2721.12.3. Load Vector Correction .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

    1.13. PLANE82 - 2-D 8-Node Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2731.13.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2731.13.2. Assumptions and Restrictions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

    1.14. SOLID92 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2741.14.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

    1.15. SOLID95 - 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2751.15.1. Other Applicable Sections .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

    2. Hydrodynamic Loads on Line Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2772.1. Wave Theory .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

    3. Reduced Method for Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

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    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

    Feature Archive

  • Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential informationof ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.vi

  • List of Figures

    4.1. BEAM4 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874.2. BEAM4 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9112.1. CONTAC12 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10112.2. CONTAC12 Force-Deflection Relationship .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10516.1. PIPE16 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10916.2. PIPE16 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11418.1. PIPE18 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12118.2. PIPE18 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12542.1. PLANE42 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13142.2. PLANE42 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13445.1. SOLID45 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13945.2. SOLID45 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14352.1. CONTAC52 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14952.2. CONTAC52 Force-Deflection Relationship .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15359.1. PIPE59 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15759.2. PIPE59 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15859.3. PIPE59 Velocity Profiles for Wave-current Interactions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16459.4. PIPE59 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16663.1. SHELL63 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17563.2. SHELL63 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18179.1. FLUID79 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18580.1. FLUID80 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18981.1. FLUID81 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19582.1. PLANE82 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20182.2. PLANE82 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20492.1. SOLID92 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20992.2. SOLID92 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21195.1. SOLID95 Geometry .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21595.2. SOLID95 Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2181.1. Order of Degrees of Freedom ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2261.2. Force-Deflection Relations for Standard Case .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2341.3. Force-Deflection Relations for Rigid Coulomb Option .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2351.4. Thermal and Pressure Effects ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2401.5. Elastic Pipe Direct Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2421.6. Elastic Pipe Shear Stress Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2421.7. Stress Point Locations .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2441.8. Mohr Circles .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2451.9. Plane Element .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2471.10. U-Tube with Fluid .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2701.11. Bending Without Resistance .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2712.1. Velocity Profiles for Wave-Current Interactions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

    viiRelease 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

  • Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential informationof ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.viii

  • List of Tables

    3.1. Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164.1. Linear Perturbation vs. Partial Solution Procedures .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225.1. Output Available via ETABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254.1. BEAM4 Real Constants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904.2. BEAM4 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914.3. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 0) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934.4. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 1) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944.5. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 3) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 954.6. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 5) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964.7. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 7) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974.8. BEAM4 Item and Sequence Numbers (KEYOPT(9) = 9) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9912.1. CONTAC12 Real Constants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10412.2. CONTAC12 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10512.3. CONTAC12 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10616.1. PIPE16 Real Constants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11316.2. PIPE16 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11416.3. PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11616.4. PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11716.5. PIPE16 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11818.1. PIPE18 Real Constants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12418.2. PIPE18 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12518.3. PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12718.4. PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12818.5. PIPE18 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12942.1. PLANE42 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13542.2. PLANE42 Miscellaneous Element Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13642.3. PLANE42 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13745.1. SOLID45 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14445.2. SOLID45 Miscellaneous Element Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14545.3. SOLID45 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14652.1. CONTAC52 Real Constants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15252.2. CONTAC52 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15452.3. CONTAC52 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15559.1. PIPE59 Real Constants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16159.2. PIPE59 Water Motion Table .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16259.3. PIPE59 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16659.4. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node I) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16859.5. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Node J) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16959.6. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Pipe Options) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17059.7. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Cable Option) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17159.8. PIPE59 Item and Sequence Numbers (Additional Output) ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17163.1. SHELL63 Real Constants .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18063.2. SHELL63 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18163.3. SHELL63 Miscellaneous Element Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18263.4. SHELL63 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18279.1. FLUID79 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18779.2. FLUID79 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18880.1. FLUID80 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19180.2. FLUID80 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19281.1. FLUID81 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

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  • 81.2. FLUID81 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19882.1. PLANE82 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20482.2. PLANE82 Miscellaneous Element Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20682.3. PLANE82 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20692.1. SOLID92 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21292.2. SOLID92 Miscellaneous Element Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21392.3. SOLID92 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21495.1. SOLID95 Element Output Definitions .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21995.2. SOLID95 Miscellaneous Element Output .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22095.3. SOLID95 Item and Sequence Numbers .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2201.1. Stress Intensification Factors ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2422.1. Wave Theory Table .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

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    Feature Archive

  • About This Archive

    The purpose of this archive is to provide a location for legacy feature, element, theory, and commanddocumentation.

    The Mechanical APDL product continues to provide limited support for capabilities documented in thisarchive. In most cases, however, access via the graphical user interface (GUI) is no longer available.

    As Mechanical APDL evolves and improves, be aware that ANSYS, Inc. may undocument and discontinuesupport for any legacy capability at a future release.

    The following topics are available:

    Part I: Legacy Features (p. 1)

    Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29)

    Part IV: Legacy Elements (p. 85)

    Part V: Legacy Theory (p. 223)

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    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

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  • Part I: Legacy Features

    Following is the archived documentation for legacy Mechanical APDL features.

  • Chapter 1: Piping Models

    The ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Structural, and ANSYS Professional products offera group of commands that enable you to model piping systems and their loads in terms of conventionalpiping input data, instead of in terms of standard ANSYS direct-generation modeling operations. Asyou input piping commands, the program internally converts your piping data to direct-generationmodel data, then stores the converted information in the database. Once this information is stored, youcan list it, display it, modify it, redefine it, etc., using any of the standard direct-generation commands.

    The piping system modeling methods described here apply to straight-pipe PIPE16 and curved-pipePIPE18 elements. (Both elements are described in Part III: Legacy Elements.)

    The following topics concerning piping models are available:1.1.What the Piping Commands Can Do for You1.2. Modeling Piping Systems with Piping Commands1.3. Example Piping Model Input

    1.1. What the Piping Commands Can Do for You

    Some special features of the piping module are:

    Creates a line model of a piping network using straight-pipe PIPE16 and curved-pipe PIPE18 elements.(Both elements are described in Part IV: Legacy Elements (p. 85).) Node and element geometry aredefined in terms of incremental run lengths and bend radii, rather than in terms of absolute coordin-ates.

    Automatically calculates tangency points for bends.

    Relates standard piping designations (such as nominal diameter and schedule) to geometric values.

    Assigns pipe specifications to element real constants.

    Calculates and assigns flexibility and stress intensification factors based on the pressures and thetemperatures specified in the pipe module before the creation of the piping elements as appropriatefor each element type. The flexibility factors are not be changed automatically if the pipe pressuresor temperatures are subsequently revised.

    Determines drag pressure loads from a pressure vs. height relationship.

    1.2. Modeling Piping Systems with Piping Commands

    Building a model with the piping commands consists of three primary tasks:1.2.1. Specify the Jobname and Title1.2.2. Set Up the Basic Piping Data1.2.3. Define the Piping System's Geometry

    All piping commands referenced here are described in Part II: Legacy Commands (p. 29).

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  • Other actions required for a piping system analysis include applying additional loads (D, F, etc.), obtainingthe solution, and reviewing the results. See the Basic Analysis Guide for more information.

    1.2.1. Specify the Jobname and Title

    Perform these steps at the Begin level.

    1. Specify the jobname you want to use for all files that are subsequently created by the analysis(/FILNAME).

    2. Write an analysis file (/TITLE).

    3. Issue a "reminder" to yourself about the system of units you intend to use (/UNITS).

    This step does not convert data from one system of units to another.

    1.2.2. Set Up the Basic Piping Data

    Set up the basic piping data as follows:

    1. Enter PREP7 (/PREP7).

    2. Define the material properties for all materials referenced by the model (MP, MPTEMP, etc.).

    3. Select a system of units, if other than consistent (PUNIT).

    The PUNIT command determines how the program interprets the data input for the PDRAG,BRANCH, RUN, BEND, MITER, REDUCE, VALVE, BELLOW, FLANGE, PSPRNG, PGAP, /PSPEC, PINSUL,and PCORRO commands. The difference between PUNIT and the /UNITS command is thatPUNIT affects how the program behaves, whereas /UNITS does not.

    4. Define the pipe specifications. These specifications are applied to the elements as they are generatedvia the RUN command.

    a. Define pipe material and dimensions (PSPEC).

    b. Define the contained fluid density for a piping run (PFLUID).

    c. Define the external insulation constants in a piping run (PINSUL).

    d. Specify the allowable exterior corrosion thickness for a piping run (PCORRO).

    5. Select the piping analysis standard (POPT).:

    The program calculates and assigns flexibility and stress intensification factors for curved pipeelements based on the pressures and the temperatures specified in the pipe module beforethe creation of the piping elements as appropriate for each element type. The flexibility factorsand stress intensification factors are not changed retroactively if the pipe pressures or temper-atures are subsequently revised.

    6. Select the pipe loadings.

    a. Define the pipe wall temperatures in a piping run (PTEMP).

    b. Define the internal pressure for a piping run (PPRES).

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    Piping Models

  • c. Define the external fluid drag loading for a piping run (PDRAG).

    1.2.3. Define the Piping System's Geometry

    Define the basic skeleton layout of your piping model as follows.

    1. Specify the starting point of your piping system (BRANCH).

    2. Follow up with a series of RUN commands to define incremental "straight" runs of pipe.

    Pipe elements are generated "straight" in the active coordinate system. Each RUN commanduses length dimensions in the format specified by the PUNIT command to generate a node anda PIPE16 element (along with its real constants, material properties, and loads).

    3. Insert bends and other components (tees, valves, reducers, flanges, bellows, and spring restraints)into the model at existing nodes that are shared by two or more existing pipe elements. The programautomatically updates your model's geometry to account for the inserted components. Insertedpipe components take their specifications and loadings from the adjacent straight pipes.

    To define a bend in a piping run, issue the BEND command.

    To define a mitered bend in a piping run, issue the MITER command.

    To define a tee in a piping run, issue the TEE command.

    To define a valve in a piping run, issue the VALVE command.

    To define a reducer in a piping run, issue the REDUCE command.

    To define a flange in a piping run, issue the FLANGE command.

    To define a bellows in a piping run, issue the BELLOW command.

    To define a spring constraint in a piping run, issue the PSPRNG command.

    To define a spring-gap constraint in a piping run, issue the PGAP command.

    Another BRANCH command defines the junction point from which another run of pipe branches offthe previously defined run. Subsequent RUN commands define, in incremental fashion, another run of"straight" pipe elements, starting from the last junction point.

    1.2.3.1. Review and Modify Your Piping Model

    When you have completed piping data input, you can review the information that has been stored inthe database via standard listing and display commands (NLIST, NPLOT, ELIST, EPLOT, SFELIST,BFELIST, etc.).

    If necessary, you can modify the data using standard procedures for revising your model and your loads.See Loading in the Basic Analysis Guide for details.

    1.3. Example Piping Model Input

    The following example input shows how to model this piping system:

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    Example Piping Model Input

  • End of first run

    Start of second run

    (second BRANCH)

    Starting point (first BRANCH)

    End of second run

    MITER

    Hangers (PSPRNG)

    BEND

    TEE

    Y

    Z

    X

    !! Sample piping data input!/FILNAM,EXAMPLE/TITLE, EXAMPLE PIPING INPUT/UNITS,BIN ! A reminder that consistent units are U. S. Customary inches!/PREP7 ! Define material properties for pipe elementsMP,EX,1,30e6MP,PRXY,1,0.3MP,ALPX,1,8e-6 MP,DENS,1,.283 PUNIT,1 ! Units are read as ft+in+fraction and converted to ! decimal inchesPSPEC,1,8,STD ! 8" standard pipePOPT,B31.1 ! Piping analysis standard: ANSI B31.1PTEMP,200 ! Temperature = 200PPRES,1000 ! Internal pressure = 1000 psiPDRAG,,,-.2 ! Drag = 0.2 psi in -Z direction at any height (Y)BRANCH,1,0+12,0+12 ! Start first pipe run at (12",12",0")RUN,,7+4 ! Run 7'-4" in +Y directionRUN,9+5+1/2 ! Run 9'-5 1/2" in +X directionRUN,,,-8+4 ! Run 8'-4" in -Z directionRUN,,8+4 ! Run 8'-4" in +Y direction/PNUM,NODE,1/VIEW,1,1,2,3 EPLOT ! Identify node number at which 2nd run startsBRANCH,4 ! Start second pipe run at node 4RUN,6+2+1/2 ! Run 6'-2 1/2" in +X directionTEE,4,WT ! Insert a tee at node 4/PNUM,DEFA/PNUM,ELEM,1EPLOT ! Identify element numbers for bend and miter insertsBEND,1,2,SR ! Insert a "short-radius" bend between elements 1 and 2MITER,2,3,LR,2 ! Insert a two-piece miter between elements 2 and 3/PNUM,DEFA/PNUM,NODE,1! Zoom in on miter bend to identify nodes for spring hangers/ZOOM, 1, 242.93 , 206.62 , -39.059 , 26.866 PSPRNG,14,TRAN,1e4,,0+12 ! Insert Y-direction spring at node 14PSPRNG,16,TRAN,1e4,,0+12 ! Insert Y-direction spring at node 16

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    Piping Models

  • ! List and display interpreted input data/AUTO/PNUM,DEFA EPLOTNLISTELISTSFELISTBFELIST!

    Although two hangers are provided, more restraints are needed before proceeding to the solution.

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    Example Piping Model Input

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  • Chapter 2: Subroutines

    2.1. Creep Subroutine UserCr

    In contrast to the UserCreep subroutine, the UserCr subroutine requires that you specify the creepstrain tensor. A detailed explanation of this subroutine follows.

    *deck,usercr USERSDISTRIB subroutine usercr (elem,intpt,mat,ncomp,kfirst,kfsteq,e,posn,d, x proptb,timval,timinc,tem,dtem,toffst,fluen,dfluen,epel,epcrp, x statev,usvr,delcr)c

    c *** primary function: allow users to write their own creep laws.c this logic is accessed with c6 = 100c *** secondary function: demonstrate the use of user-written creep lawsc

    c *** Notice - This file contains ANSYS Confidential information ***c

    c

    c *** Copyright ANSYS. All Rights Reserved.c *** ansys, inc.c

    c input arguments:c variable (type,sze,intent) descriptionc

    c elem (int,sc,in) - element number (label)c intpt (int,sc,in) - element integration point numberc mat (int,sc,in) - material reference numberc ncomp (int,sc,in) - no. of stress/strain components (1,4 or 6)c 1 - xc 4 - x,y,z,xyc 6 - x,y,z,xy,yz,xzc kfirst (int,sc,in) - 1 if first time through, 0 otherwisec (useful for initializing state variablesc to a non-zero value)c kfsteq (int,sc,in) - 1 if first equilibrium iteration of ac substep, 0 otherwisec

    c

    c e (dp,sc,in) - elastic young'S MODULUSc posn (dp,sc,in) - poisson'S RATIOc d (dp,ar(ncomp,ncomp),in)- elastic stress-strain matrixc proptb (dp,ar(72),in) - material properties input on tb commandsc (do not use proptb(13), as it is used elsewhere)c timval (dp,sc,in) - current time valuec timinc (dp,sc,in) - time increment over this substepc tem (dp,sc,in) - temperature at the end of this substepc dtem (dp,sc,in) - temperature increment over this substepc toffst (dp,sc,in) - temperature offset from absolute zeroc fluen (dp,sc,in) - fluence at the end of this substepc dfluen (dp,sc,in) - fluence increment over this substepc

    c epel (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- elastic strainc epcrp (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- creep strain from previous substepc statev (dp,ar(ncomp*5+2),inout)- state variables from previous c (converged) substep. This variable is forc explicit creep only and refers to a c different internal variable than that c defined by TB,stat which is used by c implicit creep (usercreep) and usermat.c usvr (dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- additional state variables from

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  • c previous equilibrium iteration (savedc if the nsvr command is used)c

    c

    c output arguments:c variable (type,sze,intent) descriptionc

    c epel (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- elastic strain adjusted for creep incrementc epcrp (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- updated creep strainc statev (dp,ar(ncomp*5+2),inout)- updated state variablesc usvr (dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- updated additional state variablesc delcr (dp,sc,out) - equivalent creep strain increment (usedc for creep ratio calculation)c

    c fortran parameters (to be defined by the user):c variable (type) descriptionc nuval (int) - number of additional state variables perc integration pointc nintp (int) - maximum number of integration points ofc an element to be used with this routinec (14 is the maximum)c note: nuval x nintp = nstv(on nsvr command); cannot exceed 840!c

    c internal variables:c variable (type,sze) descriptionc con (dp,sc) - temporary variablec del (dp,ar(6)) - creep strain incrementsc epet (dp,sc) - equivalent elastic strain (before creep)c ept (dp,ar(6)) - total strainc eptot (dp,sc) - equivalent total strain, elastic + creepc sigen (dp,sc) - equivalent stress (before creep)c temabs (dp,sc) - temperature on the absolute scalec

    2.2. Subroutine UserPL (Writing Your Own Plasticity Laws)

    ANSYS, Inc. recommends using current-technology elements and the UserMat subroutine for definingyour own material model. However, if you are using a legacy element type and wish to define a plasticityor viscoplasticity material model, the UserPL subroutine is applicable to legacy element SOLID65.

    *deck,userpl USERSDISTRIB subroutine userpl (elem,intpt,mat,ncomp,kfirst,kfsteq,e,nu,dens, x prop,d,ktform,timval,timinc,tem,dtem,toffst,flu,dflu,epel,eppl, x statev,usvr,epeq,plwork,sigepl,sigrat,depeq,dt)c

    c *** primary function: allow users to write their own plasticity laws.c this logic is accessed with tb,user.c the below demonstration logic is the same as usingc tb,bkin, without adaptive descent (nropt,,,off).c Other plasticity rules may require internal c iterations and/or the more general definition ofc plasticity theory, discussed in the Theoryc Manual.c *** secondary function: demonstrate the use of user-written plasticity lawsc in this routine:c a. update the nonlinear strain historyc b. compute the material tangent matrix if requestedc

    c *** Notice - This file contains ANSYS Confidential information ***c

    c

    c Copyright ANSYS. All Rights Reserved.c *** ansys, inc.c

    c input arguments:c variable (type,sze,intent) descriptionc

    c elem (int,sc,in) - element number (label)

    Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential informationof ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.10

    Subroutines

  • c intpt (int,sc,in) - element integration point numberc mat (int,sc,in) - material reference numberc ncomp (int,sc,in) - no. of stress/strain components (1,4 or 6)c 1 - xc 4 - x,y,z,xyc 6 - x,y,z,xy,yz,xzc kfirst (int,sc,in) - 1 if first time through, 0 otherwisec (useful for initializing state variablesc to a non-zero value)c kfsteq (int,sc,in) - 1 if first equilibrium iteration of ac substep, 0 otherwisec

    c e (dp,sc,in) - average elastic modulusc nu (dp,sc,in) - average poisson ratioc dens (dp,sc,in) - current material density (mass/volume)c prop - linear material property arrayc (dp,ar(9),in) (ex,ey,ez, gxy,gyz,gxz, nuxy,nuyz,nuxz)c (dp,ar(1),in) if ncomp=1 (ex)c d (dp,ar(ncomp,ncomp),in)- elastic stress-strain matrixc ktform (int,sc,in) - request key for tangent matrix formationc (=1, form tangent .ne.1, do not form)c

    c timval (dp,sc,in) - current time valuec timinc (dp,sc,in) - time increment over this substepc

    c tem (dp,sc,in) - temperature at the end of this substepc dtem (dp,sc,in) - temperature increment over this substepc toffst (dp,sc,in) - temperature offset from absolute zeroc flu (dp,sc,in) - fluence at the end of this substepc dflu (dp,sc,in) - fluence increment over this substepc

    c epel (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- modified total strain (trial strain)c epel = eptot - eppl - eptherm - ...c if a large strain analysis, epel isc rotation neutralized and is the henckyc (i.e. log) strainc eppl (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- plastic strain from previous substepc

    c statev (dp,ar(ncomp,6),inout)- state variables from previous substepc usvr (dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- additional state variables fromc previous equilibrium iteration (savedc if the nsvr command is used)c

    c epeq (dp,sc,inout) - effective plastic strain from prev substepc plwork (dp,sc,inout) - accumulated plastic work from prev substepc

    c output arguments:c variable (type,sze,intent) descriptionc

    c epel (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- elastic strainc eppl (dp,ar(ncomp),inout)- updated plastic strainc

    c statev (dp,ar(ncomp,6),inout)- updated state variablesc usvr (dp,ar(nuval,nintp),inout)- updated additional state variablesc

    c epeq (dp,sc,inout) - updated effective plastic strainc plwork (dp,sc,inout) - updated accumulated plastic workc

    c sigepl (dp,sc,out) - stress value on stress-strain curve at epeqc sigrat (dp,sc,out) - ratio of trial stress to yield stressc depeq (dp,sc,out) - increment in plastic strain (equivalent)c (used for auto time stepping - time stepc is reduced if it exceeds .05)c

    c dt (dp,ar(ncomp,ncomp),out)- material tangent modulusc

    c fortran parameters (to be defined by the user):c variable (type) descriptionc numinp (int) - number of data items in the user-definedc data table (tbdat commands)c nuval (int) - number of additional state variables perc integration point

    11Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

    Subroutine UserPL (Writing Your Own Plasticity Laws)

  • c nintp (int) - maximum number of integration points ofc an element to be used with this routinec (14 is the maximum)c note: nuval x nintp = nstv(on nsvr command); cannot exceed 840!c

    c internal variables:c variable (type,sze) descriptionc b (dp,ar(6,6)) - 2nd derivative of the yield functionc c (dp,ar(6,12)) - part of deffc con (dp,sc) - temporary variablec deppl (dp,ar(6)) - plastic strain incrementc dfds (dp,ar(6)) - derivative of the yield function (normal)c dlamb (dp,sc) - plastic multiplierc ep (dp,ar(6)) - shifted strainc epshfo (dp,ar(6)) - initial shift strain (center of the yield surf)c epshft (dp,ar(6)) - shift strain (center of the yield surface)c et (dp,sc) - tangent modulus (stress/total strain)c h (dp,sc) - plastic tangent modulus (stress/plastic strain)c n2 (int,sc) - ncomp squared, ncomp*ncompc seqtr (dp,sc) - equivalent (von mises) trial stressc sigtr (dp,ar(6)) - trial stressc sigy (dp,sc) - yield stressc vect (dp,ar(6)) - temporary vectorc

    2.3. Subroutine UserVisLaw (Defining Viscosity Laws)

    *deck,UserVisLaw USERSDISTRIB subroutine UserVisLaw x (dudx,dudy,dudz, x dvdx,dvdy,dvdz, x dwdx,dwdy,dwdz, x u,v,w,x,y,z,kGeom, x Vis,Temp,Tref,Pres,Pref,Cf, x MFrac,DfNSpec,Time,VisNew,toffst)

    2.4. Subroutine usflex (Computes the flexibility factor for PIPE16 and

    PIPE18)

    Legacy pipe elements PIPE16 and PIPE18 are described in Part IV: Legacy Elements (p. 85).

    *deck,usflex USERSDISTRIB subroutine usflex (etype,elem,rvrm,kff,prs,ex, flexi,flexo)c *** primary function: to (re)compute the flexibility factor c for pipe16, pipe17, pipe18, and pipe60c this is accessed by inputting the flexibility factorc as any negative number.c *** secondary functions: nonec

    c *** Notice - This file contains ANSYS Confidential information ***c

    c *** Copyright ANSYS. All Rights Reserved.c *** ansys, inc.c

    c typ=int,dp,log,chr,dcp siz=sc,ar(n) intent=in,out,inoutc

    c input arguments:c variable (typ,siz,intent) descriptionc etype (int,sc,in) - pipe element type (16, 17, 18 or 60)c elem (int,sc,in) - element numberc rvrm (dp,ar(*),in) - real constantsc kff (int,sc,in) - keyopt for flexibility factorc (not used for pipe16 or pipe17)c prs (dp,ar(5),in) - pressures

    Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential informationof ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.12

    Subroutines

  • c ex (dp,sc,in) - young's Modulusc flexi (dp,sc,inout) - effective in-plane flexibility factorc flexo (dp,sc,inout) - effective out-of-plane flexibility factorc (not used for pipe16 or pipe17)c

    c output arguments:c variable (typ,siz,intent) descriptionc flexi (dp,sc,inout) - effective in-plane flexibility factorc flexo (dp,sc,inout) - effective out-of-plane flexibility factorc (not used for pipe16 or pipe17)c

    13Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

    Subroutine usflex (Computes the flexibility factor for PIPE16 and PIPE18)

  • Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential informationof ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.14

  • Chapter 3: Restarting a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis

    To restart a direct coupled-field analysis, ANSYS Inc. recommends using a singleframe restart. Directcoupled-field analyses use a coupled-field element containing all necessary degrees of freedom. Seethe Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information on this type of coupled-field analysis.

    3.1. Singleframe Restart

    A traditional restart requires that certain files from the initial run of the job are present, and requiresthat you make any changes to the input before the SOLVE command.

    3.1.1. Singleframe Restart Requirements

    When restarting from a static or full transient analysis, the following files must be available from theinitial run:

    Jobname.DB - The database file saved immediately after the initial SOLVE. If you save the databaseat any point later in the analysis, boundary conditions and other variables may be changed from theirinitial values, which would prevent the restart from running properly. (For non-converged solutions,the database file is saved automatically; see the note below.)

    Jobname.EMAT - Element matrices (if created).

    Jobname.ESAV or .OSAV - Element saved data (.ESAV) or old element saved data (.OSAV). Job-name.OSAV is required only if the .ESAV file is missing, incomplete, or otherwise corrupted becauseof a diverging solution; because the displacement limit was exceeded; or because of a negative pivot(see Table 3.1: Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses (p. 16)). It is written if KSTOP is set to 1(default) or 2 on the NCNV command, or if automatic time stepping is active. If the .OSAV file is re-quired, you must rename it as Jobname.ESAV before restarting the analysis.

    Results file - Not required, but if available, results from the restart run will be appended to it withthe proper, sequential load step and substep numbers. If the initial run terminated because thenumber of results sets on the results file were exceeded, you will need to rename the initial resultsfile to a different name before restarting. To do so, issue the /ASSIGN command (Utility Menu> File>ANSYS File Options).

    When restarting from a mode-superposition transient analysis, the following files must be availablefrom the initial run:

    Jobname.DB -- The database file saved immediately after the initial solve operation (SOLVE). If you savethe database at any point later in the analysis, boundary conditions and other variables may be changedfrom their initial values, which would prevent the restart from running properly.

    15Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information

    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

  • Jobname.RDSP -- The reduced displacement file with information from the last substep of the last loadstep needed for restart.

    Note

    In a nonlinear analysis, if the program terminates due to nonconvergence, time limits, theabort file (Jobname.ABT), or other program-detected failure, the database is automaticallysaved, and the solution output (Jobname.OUT) will list the files and other information re-quired for restarting. See also Table 3.1: Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses (p. 16)for a list of termination causes and the element saved data file needed to restart.

    If the files .RDB, .LDHI, or .Rnnn/.Mnnn were accidentally created from a previous run,you must delete them before performing a singleframe restart.

    In interactive mode, an existing database file is first written to a backup file (Jobname.DBB).In batch mode, an existing database file is replaced by the current database information withno backup.

    Table 3.1: Restart Information for Nonlinear Analyses

    Required Corrective ActionElement Saved

    Data File

    Cause of Termination

    Add more load steps at the end of your job.Job-name.ESAV

    Normal (i.e., no errors)

    Define a smaller time step, change the adaptivedescent option, or take other action to enhance

    Job-name.OSAV

    Nonconvergence

    convergence. Rename Jobname.OSAV as Job-name.ESAV before restarting.

    If the solution was converging, allow more equilib-rium equations (NEQIT command).

    Job-name.ESAV

    Nonconvergence due toinsufficient equilibriumiterations

    Increase ITLIM on NCNV command.Job-name.ESAV

    Cumulative iterationlimit exceeded (NCNVcommand)

    None (simply restart the analysis). (If you were run-ning the analysis interactively and you want to re-

    Job-name.ESAV

    Time limit exceeded(NCNV)

    start it from within the same ANSYS session, youmust reset the time limits before attempting therestart.)

    (Same as for nonconvergence.)Job-name.OSAV

    Displacement limit ex-ceeded (NCNV)

    (Same as for nonconvergence.)Job-name.OSAV

    Negative pivot

    Make whatever changes are necessary to addressthe behavior that caused you to voluntarily termin-ate the analysis.

    Job-name.ESAV,Job-name.OSAV

    Jobname.ABT

    if solution was conver-ging

    if solution was diver-ging

    Release 14.5 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential informationof ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.16

    Restarting a Direct Coupled-Field Analysis

  • Required Corrective ActionElement Saved

    Data File

    Cause of Termination

    No restart is possible.Not applicable"Killed" job (systembreak), system crash, orsystem time-limit ex-ceeded

    Note

    Singleframe restart does not support surface-to-surface, node-to-surface, line-to-line, or line-to-surface contact. Use multiframe restart if your model contains any of the following contactelements: CONTA171, CONTA172, CONTA173, CONTA174, CONTA175, CONTA176, CONTA177.

    3.1.2. Singleframe Restart Procedure

    If you are performing a mode-superposition transient analysis, ANSYS sets up the parameters for asingleframe restart by default.

    The procedure for performing the restart analysis is as follows:

    1. Enter the ANSYS program and specify the same jobname that was used in the initial run with /FIL-NAME (Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname).

    2. Enter the SOLUTION processor using /SOLU (Main Menu> Solution), then resume the database fileusing RESUME (Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db).

    3. Indicate that this is a restart analysis by issuing ANTYPE,,REST (Main Menu> Solution> Restart).

    4. Specify revised or additional loads as needed. Modified ramped loads start from their previous values.Newly applied ramped loads are ramped from zero; newly applied body loads start from initial values.Deleted loads which are reapplied are treated as new, not modified, loads. In static and full transientanalyses, surface and body loads to be deleted should be ramped to zero, or to the initial value, sothat the Jobname.ESAV and Jobname.OSAV files are consistent with the database.

    For a mode-superposition transient analysis, steps 5, 6, 7, and 8 below do not apply.

    Take whatever corrective action is necessary if you are restarting from a convergence failure.

    5. If you are running a linear static or linear full transient analysis (with AUTOTS,OFF and the t