Ancient India & China 2500 BC- 256 BC Civilizations in India & China Foundations for...

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Transcript of Ancient India & China 2500 BC- 256 BC Civilizations in India & China Foundations for...

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  • Ancient India & China 2500 BC- 256 BC Civilizations in India & China Foundations for Religion & Philosophy Achievements of Ancient Asia Green Book Ch 3 52-69 & Chapter 13 262-271 Honors: Pp 66-75 & Chapter 8 200-216
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  • Key Vocabulary- UNIT II China & India Hinduism Buddhism Reincarnation Karma Dharma Subcontinent Monsoon Rajah Polytheistic Caste System Ahimsa Asoka/Asoka Vedas Vedic Age Mandate of Heaven Veneration of Ancestors Dynastic Cycle Filial Piety Confucius Siddhartha Gautama Sanskrit Civil Service Middle Kingdom Taoism Legalism
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  • Essential Questions :India/China 1.How has geography influenced India and China? 2.What are some key geographic features of both India and China 3.What are some achievements of both early civilizations of India and China 4.What impact did the Aryans have on India 5.How did the caste system influence India? 6.What ideas of govt did early Chinese civilizations bring? 7.Why is Hinduism a complex religion? What are some of the central teachings of Buddhism. Compare the similarities and the differences of the two religions. 8.What philosophies developed in early China? 9.What caused the collapsed of the early civilization in China and India?
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  • Geographic Features of India The term subcontinent is only associated w/ India 3 major zones: northern plain, Deccan Plateau & the coastal plains 2 major rivers: Indus River & Ganges River Monsoons (winter and summer)- These bring floods and destructionalso needed rain! Himalayan Mountains have a dramatic effect on the region.
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  • Indus Valley Civilization 2500 BC-1000 BC Well planned cities of Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa Massive planned cities-grid pattern Lost due to a flood/no records left Powerful govt Brick buildings ***************************************** In the Beginning Reading (please review) Invasion of the Aryans changed their lives. The people of the Indus Valley were monotheisticbut the Aryans brought their polytheistic ideas and religion to the region (Hinduism is formed)
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  • Indus Valley Civilization 2500 BC-1500 BC Cities: Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa Massive well planned cities-grid pattern Powerful govt Brick buildings Farming & Trade Special regard for cattle- cows are worshipped New language- SANSKIRTbasics for Hinduism..
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  • Harappa Seals More than 2,000 seals have been found. Historians think that each merchant family used its own seal to stamp labels on its trade goods- is this similar to anything people do today?
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  • The ruins of the ancient city Mohenjo-Daro are found in the province of Sind, southern Pakistan (used to be India). Dating to 2500 bc, the ruins are an important source of information about the Indus Valley civilization, which was one of the worlds first great civilizations.
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  • What are possible causes to the decline of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa? Mysterious endings Ecological disaster? Deforestation? Volcanic eruption? Devastating earthquake? Desertion? Invasion?
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  • The Aryans 1500 BC the warlike Aryans invaded India Superior iron weapons Their records were left in the Vedas (hence they refer to this as the Vedic Age 1500-500 BC An example of the Vedic book is the Rig Veda
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  • Instant Karma is going to get you John Lennon The term karma is defined as: the total effect of a persons actions and conduct during the successive phases of existence.(what you do in this life effects your next life). This idea reinforces the caste system Does karma play into how you behave? How may one have good karma? How may one have bad karma?
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  • CASTE SYSTEM The caste system is a religious and social system that organized the people of India based on status and occupation by BIRTH This is an example of a rigid class structure. {typically represented by a triangle} This system is the foundation for the Hindu faith. This takes into account reincarnation, karma, and your dharma. The goal is to reach moksha- unification w/ the GODS- break out of the caste and join the gods Each caste has a job, duty and obligation
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  • Major concepts- Vocabulary Reincarnation-the process of the soul being born again. Atman- the essential self/soul Karma-all of the actions of a persons life and how they affect their fate in the next life. Dharma-the religious/moral duties of each caste. Moksha-union w/ the gods Nirvana-eternal bliss/peace Cows are sacred animals
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  • Hinduism-one of the oldest and the only POLYTHEISTIC religions 3 main gods: Brahma- creator Shiva- destroyer Vishnu- preserver +1,000 more.
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  • Questions for review How does the caste system effect society? Would you consider Hinduism a complex religion? What problems does the caste system cause? Handout for Essay: Chart Hinduism/Buddhism
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  • HinduismBuddhism Founder (s) Who / When Location Holy Books/Holy Literature Polytheistic/Monothei stic Examples Practices/Tenants Goals Major religious themes Holy places Miscellaneous:
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  • Buddhism Who is the founder? Around what year? What are some of the main beliefs? What are commonalities w/ Hinduism? What are the holy books? How is this more of a way of life?
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  • Origins of Buddhism Founder: Sidhartha Gautama 6 th Century BC India Sought a new way of life Through meditation he became : Buddha or the enlightened one Sought the middle way
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  • Teachings and Beliefs Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, and by all account led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root caused of all suffering. This idea has been recorded as the Four Noble Truths
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  • Four Noble Truths Siddhartha's philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by these four statements: 1.Life is full of pain and suffering. 2.Human desire causes this suffering. 3.By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering. 4.Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path.
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  • Eightfold Path The Wheel of Life is one of the most important symbols of Buddhism, as it represents the endless cycle of life through reincarnation and because each of its eight spokes represents one of the teachings of the Eightfold Path. 1.Know that suffering is caused by desire. 2.Be selfless and love all life. 3.Do not lie, or speak without cause. 4.Do not kill, steal, or commit other unrighteous acts. 5.Do not do things which promote evil. 6.Take effort to promote righteousness. 7.Be aware of your physical actions, state of mind, and emotions. 8.Learn to meditate.
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  • Similarities of Hinduism and Buddhism HinduismBuddhism
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  • Differences HinduismBuddhism
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  • Ancient Kingdoms of India Maurya Empire Chandragupta seized the thrown of India This empire developed over the Deccan Plateau & into Afghanistan Schools and Libraries were created The most notable achievements were: Expansion of trade Creation of a code of laws: Asokas Edits Gupta Empire
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  • Asoka He is the most famous leaders of the Maurya empire. 269 BC-232 BC He was a warrior that saw the evils of battle and converted to Buddhism..he became a pacifist. He preached toleration and non violence Codified laws called: Asokas Edicts. EXs
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  • The Fourteen Rock Edicts [^][^] 1 Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, has caused this Dhamma edict to be written.[1] Here (in my domain) no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice. Nor should festivals be held, for Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, sees much to object to in such festivals, although there are some festivals that Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does approve of.1 Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dhamma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed. 2 Everywhere[2] within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piy