Ancient Greece Philosophers, Athenians, Spartans Conquerors and Conquest

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Transcript of Ancient Greece Philosophers, Athenians, Spartans Conquerors and Conquest

Greek Philosophers

Ancient GreecePhilosophers, Athenians, Spartans Conquerors and ConquestGreek Philosophers

Greek PhilosophersPhilosophers lovers of wisdomSophists workers of wisdom Teachersphileo = lovesophia = wisdomIf sophia = wisdom and moron = fool, then a sophomore is a wise fool.

Pythagoras582-500 B.C.The universe could only be understood thru numbers.Sun, moon, and earth revolved around a central fire.Each planet produces a tone!Famous for the Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2

Pythagoras582-500 B.C.Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2

a2c2b2Protagoras485 - 410 B.C.Most famous of the SophistsBelieved that reason and knowledge should be used to achieve a comfortable, safe, and happy life.Teachings to equip citizens for life in the polis:Public speaking oratory and rhetoricPoliticsGrammar languageThe art of being respectable

Plato named one of his dialogues after him.

Hippocrates460-377 B.C.Founded a school of medicineRejected that sickness comes from the godsCareful observations of symptomsAcuteChronicHolistic healingHygieneDietCurative powers of natureThe Hippocratic Oath

Euclidc.300 B.C.One of the most prominent mathematiciansWrote The Elements Widely used till about 1903.2nd only to the Bible in numbers of translations, publications, and studyGreek Arabic Latin Said to Ptolemy: There is No Royal Road to geometry!

Archimedes287 - 212 B.C.Greek mathematician GeometryWar machines and other devicesTheory of buoyancy - Eureka!Law of the leverArchimedean screw

Archimedean Screw

Modern application of the Archimedean Screw

The Three Most Famous Philosophers

Socrates Plato AristotleSocrates469 - 399 B.C.Critic of the SophistsEncouraged students to thinkLeft no writings skepticalDialectic method ConversationalBased upon reason and logicPopular among the youtha gadfly in AthensPlaced on trial for impiety and corrupting the youthWas executed in 399 drank poison hemlock

Socrates469 - 399 B.C.

The unexamined life is not worth living. - Socrates - Socrates469 - 399 B.C.Socratic Method:Admit ignorance.Never rely on tradition.Continuously question.Formulate your own opinions.Test your opinions with others.

Socrates469 - 399 B.C.

Socrates dialectic method was a departure from earlier philosophers.Earlier philosophers were interested in the nature of the universe and basic elements.Socrates approach was more rigorous and was the forerunner of logic.Most famous student: PlatoSocrates469 - 399 B.C.

The unexamined life is not worth living.

Plato427 - 347 B.C.Preserved and perpetuated the work of SocratesMost important source of info on SocratesFounded the AcademyWrote dialoguesUniversal Forms was a recurring themeThe Republic most important dialogue

Those things which are beautiful are also difficult.Aristotle384 - 322 B.C.Most famous student of PlatoMost famous teacher of Alexander the GreatDeveloped Logic as a field of studyDevised a complex system of classificationUsed in biologyViews on Government

Aristotle384 - 322 B.C.Views on Government3 Good Governments:MonarchyAristocracyDemocracy3 Bad Governments:TyrannyOligarchyMob Rule

Aristotle384 - 322 B.C.All things in moderation

Man is by nature a political animal.

Greek and Roman MythologyA ReviewofThe Principal Gods and GoddessesWhat is a myth?A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of culturesUses the supernatural to interpret natural eventsExplains the cultures view of the universe and the nature of humanityIn the beginning...was Chaos (shapeless nothingness)Chaos had two children:Night (darkness)Erebus (death)All was black, empty, silent, endless.Mysteriously, Love was born of darkness and death.And then...When Love was born, order and beauty began to flourish.Love created Light and Day.Earth was created.She was the solid ground, but also a personality.The Earth bore Heaven to cover her and be a home for the gods.The First ParentsMother Earth = Gaea (Gaia)Father Heaven = Ouranos (Uranus)They had three kinds of children:Three monsters with 100 hands and 50 headsThree cyclopesThe titansThese were the first characters that had the appearance of life, although it was unlike any life known to man.The Titans (The Elder Gods)There were many of them.Enormous size, incredible strengthCronos (Saturn): Ruler of the titansRhea: Wife of CronosOcean: River that encircled the worldIapetus: Father of Prometheus,Epimetheus, and Atlas (also titans)

The Principal GodsCronos and Rhea were parents ofZeus (Jupiter, Jove)Poseidon (Neptune)Hades (Pluto)Hera (Juno)Hestia (Vesta)Demeter (Ceres)Other Olympians includeAthena (Minerva)Ares (Mars)Hebe (Juventas)Hephaestus (Vulcan)Apollo (Apollo)Artemis (Diana)Hermes (Mercury)Aphrodite (Venus)Dionysus (Bacchus)PersephoneThe Olympians

ZeusRoman Name: Jupiter (also Jove)Supreme god of the Olympians.Fathered many characters in mythology


HeraRoman Name: JunoZeuss sister and wifeJealous protector of marriagePunished the women Zeus fell in love with

PoseidonRoman Name: NeptuneGod of the Seas and WatersThe Earthshaker

HadesRoman Name: PlutoGod of the Underworld/ DeadKidnapped Persephone

HestiaRoman Name: VestaGoddess of HomePowerful Protector

DemeterRoman Name: CeresGoddess of the HarvestA Goddess of the Earth

AthenaRoman Name: MinervaGoddess of Wisdom and WarSprang from Zeuss head

AresRoman Name: MarsGod of WarSon of Zeus and HeraBloodthirsty and merciless

HephaestusRoman Name: Vulcan (Mulciber)God of Fire/ForgeSon of Zeus and HeraKind, unlike his brother

ApolloRoman Name: ApolloGod of Light/Sun and MusicBrother of Artemis

ArtemisRoman Name: DianaGoddess of the Moon/ HuntSister to Apollo

HermesRoman Name: MercuryMessenger of the GodsAppears in more myths than any other character

AphroditeRoman Name: VenusGoddess of Love and BeautySprang from the ocean foam

DionysusRoman Name: BacchusGod of WinePatron god of the Greek stageA God of the Earth

PersephoneRoman Name: ProserpinaGoddess of the UnderworldDaughter of Zeus and DemeterAbducted by Hades

HebeRoman Name: JuventasGoddess of YouthCupbearer to the GodsRestored youth to the aged

ErosRoman Name: CupidYoung God of LoveSon of Aphrodite and Hephaestus

IrisGoddess of the RainbowMessenger for Zeus and HeraDaughter of the titan Thaumus and the nymph Electra

The MusesNine daughters of Zeus and MnemosyneInspired artists of all kindsGoddesses who presided over the arts and sciencesHe is happy whom the muses love.

Clio, Urania, Thalia, Melpomene, Erato, Calliope, Euterpe, Terpsichore, PolyhymniaThe GracesThree Goddesses of Grace and BeautyThey give life its bloom.Aglaia (Splendor)Euphrosyne (Mirth)Thalia (Good Cheer)

The Erinnyes (The Furies)Roman Name: Furiae or Dirae (The Furies)Three Goddesses of VengeanceTisiphoneAlectoMegaeraThey punish evildoers.

The FatesRoman Name: Parcae, MoiraeThree sistersClotho (The Spinner)Lachesis (The disposer of lots)Atropos (The cutter)They weave, measure, and cut the thread of life for humans.

The SatyrsGods of the woods and mountainsShepherd godsGoat men (like Pan)Companions of DionysusThey like to drink, dance, and chase nymphs.

The GorgonsThree snake-haired monstersMedusa is most well-knownTheir look turns men to stone.

The CentaursHalf man, half horseSavage creatures (except Chiron)Followers of Dionysus

The Greek City-States and the War with Persia58Greek City-States and the War with PersiaThe PolisThe Polis is the Greek word for city-state which is essentially a town, city or village.In each city, usually at the top of a hill was the Acropolis. It was a fortified meeting area that was used for religious center or refuge against attack.The Agora was an open area below the acropolis that served as a market and assembly area.Greek ColoniesBetween 750 and 550BC the Greek settled other land besides Greece and became as independent as the Mother cities they came from.Main Setting Areas: Aegean Sea & Black SeaHellespontBosporusByzantium (Constantinople-Istanbul)Main Settling Areas: Mediterranean SeaItalian CoastsSpanish Coasts Sicily CoastEgyptian CoastThe War with PersiaThe 300Sparta Video Video 2Located on the PeloponnesusCaptured the Messenians and Laconians who become Helots captured.Sparta is a Military State- created to control the helots.The lives of the Spartans were very rigid and organized (Spartan means highly self-disciplined).Spartan men & womenAgoge - Spartan boys were taken to military training camps at age 7 and officially joined the army at age 20.Spartan men were allowed to marry at 20 but were often away either living in the barracks until age 30, after joining the military at age 20, or being away at war. Men served in the army until age 60.Since their husband were gone so much, Spartan women had greater freedoms than most women in Greece at the time.They were also expected to stay fit to bear and raise healthy children. The girls were trained in javelin throwing, wrestling and running.

Spartan governmentOligarchy Two KingsEphors A group of 5 men who were elected every year.Responsible for the education of the youth and the conduct of all citizens.Council of Elders 2 Kings and 28 Citizen over age 60.They decided and voted on issued. They did not debate.The Spartan government discouraged visitors and traveling abroad for the fear that new ideas might be introduced into the Spartan culture.Spartan were all about war.AthensLocated on the Peninsula of Attica.Early on it was ruled by a king but later became an Oligarchy under the control of its aristocrats. They owned the best land.Problems arose in the late 7th century BC when many farmer were sold into slavery to pay debts.The poor demanded they