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    agora open market place in center of the

    city-state

    Alexander the Great

    Son of Phillip II, at age 20 became king of Macedonia and created

    largest empire in the world. Wanted to spread his love of Greek culture

    to his conquered lands. Kept control by

    -allowing conquered people to continue to practice their own religions

    and naming himself a god.

    -He used Greek cities as a model for new cities in his empire complete

    with an agora, theater, temple etc.

    -Most famous of his cities was Alexandria, Egypt

    -Encouraged his soldiers to marry Persian women

    -Forced all government officials and soldiers to speak Greek

    -He became ill,died and empire fell apart as Generals fought for control

    Ancient Egypt dividedq Upper and Lower Kingdom

    Ancient Egyptian form of

    recreation

    hunting hippos

    Anubis god of embalming

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    Aqueducts Bridge-like stone structures that

    carry water from the hills into

    Roman cities

    archeologists dug out mummies from tombs

    aristocrat

    Rich social class in Greek city

    states that advised and provided

    supplies to the king (monarch).

    May overthrow him and take

    power to form Oligarchy

    assembly The law making group within a

    Greek city-state made up of all

    male citizens

    Augustus Imperial title given to Octavian

    from the Senate marking the

    founding of the Empire of Rome.

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    Battle of Marathon - Greek victory

    Persian King Darius wanted to punish the Athenians

    for helping the Ionians during their rebellion. Greeks

    led by Miltiades, used the "natural geography"

    against the Persians:

    1)Battle took place between two mountains.

    2)Persians couldn't use cavalry (couldn't get horses

    on marshy land). Persians were drawn into the

    Greek's purposely weakened center allowing Greek

    forces to surround them.

    Battle of Salamis - Greek victory

    Greek naval leader, Themistocles,

    used "natural geography " to force

    the larger Persian fleet, led by

    Xerxes, to advance a fewer number

    of their ships into battle with the

    smaller Greek fleet.

    Battle of Thermopylae - Persians

    won BUT many Greeks considered

    it a victory

    Greeks, led by Leonidas, used the "natural

    geography"- a narrow pass, against the Persians.

    Once again Persians, led by King Xerxes, could not

    use their cavalry. Leonidas and his Spartans held

    off the Persians so other Greek soldiers could

    return home to unite and defend the Greeks

    against Xerxes' forces.

    bishopran schools often located in

    cathedrals(large churches) in

    charge of all churches in a certain

    area

    Caesar

    A title used by all Roman

    emperors. When a New Testament

    writer mentions "Caesar," he

    means the emperor who was

    ruling at the time.

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    Caligula

    Only ruled for four years, mentally

    unstable. He had an affair with his

    sister and named them both as

    Gods. He also named his horse a

    consul.

    capital of Ancient Egypt Memphis

    Church of England Henry V III broke away from the

    popes authority and set up his own

    church (Anglican)

    Claudius

    An intelligent and scholarly man

    who conquered Britain. It is

    believed that his wife, Agrippina,

    poisoned him with tainted

    mushrooms

    Cleopatra last queen of Egypt - had

    relationship with Julius Ceasar

    and Marc Antony

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    colonization reasons and process

    Greeks needed to establish colonies to get

    things they needed (ex. food and timber.)

    They would consult an oracle, gather

    food and supplies, travel by sea and then

    choose a good location for a colony with a

    good harbor and weak natives.

    Colosseum Ancient Roman arena known for

    its tremendous architecture and

    bloody entertainment

    Commodus Marcus Aurelius' weak spoiled son

    who was named successor

    ConstantineRoman Emperor (4th century

    A.D.) who promoted tolerance to

    all religions in the Roman Empire

    and legalized Christianity

    Corinthian column

    Youngest type, extremely

    decorative capitals detailed with

    acanthus leaves--had a base.

    Romans used this style more than

    the Greeks.

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    Councils

    a set of two King-like officials of

    Rome who commanded the army

    and government. Elected by the

    Roman Assembly, only ruled for

    one year, and could overrule/veto

    the other Council.

    craft guild made up of people of the same

    craft (tailor, hatter, smiths, etc)

    crusades were "wars for the cross" to free

    the holy land from muslim control

    DariusPersian King and leader of the

    Persians at the Battle of

    Marathon. Held the largest

    Persian empire in history.

    democracy

    Form of government where the

    majority rules. Advantages -

    accountability;social responsibilty.

    Disadvantages - possibly wrong

    choices made;slow process for

    decision making.

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    deshret red, dry land

    DictatorA political leader given absolute

    power to make laws and command

    the army for a limited time during

    a state of emergency.

    Diocletian

    Emperor of Rome (284-305) who divided

    the empire into east and west (286) in an

    attempt to rule the territory more

    effectively. His desire to revive the old

    religion of Rome led to the last major

    persecution of the Christians (303).

    direction of flow of the Nile River south to north

    Doric column Oldest style which had a simple

    capital and no base

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    Egypt located in Africa

    Egyptian calendar 3 seasons - flooding, planting,

    harvesting

    embalming process of making a mummy

    (preserving a dead body)

    EtruscansBeginning in the 700s BCE, first

    rulers of Roman Republic and

    Empire; Laid the foundation for

    Rome and Roman civilization.

    Feudal village

    a typical village help between 50-

    500 peasants, had huts, a church,

    blacksmiths shed, and a mill for

    grinding grain and farm and

    animal fields

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    Feudalism

    Is a system of government, a way of life and a

    distinctive kind of society. Set up as a system of

    protection against barbarian tribes after the fall of

    Rome. All nobles and knights were trained warriors

    who fought on horse back with swords and lances

    during the middle ages. A vassal or less powerful

    noble gave its service and loyalty to a lord. In return

    the lord granted land called fiefs to the vassal.

    freemen owned or rented land from the

    lord and had few obligations to the

    lord

    geography & effect on Greek

    settlement and life

    Mountainous land made travel

    difficult and led to isolated,

    independent city-states. Not enough

    farm land to feed growing

    population. Easy access to sea for

    trade/travel.

    Golden Age of Athens

    Time of peace between the Persian

    and Peloponnesian Wars when

    Athenian leaders, especially

    Pericles, focused on cultural

    achievements wanting to make

    Athens a center for art and learning

    guilds

    an association of people in the same

    business or trade,

    members of a guild had to follow

    the same standards, use the same

    materials, and sell goods for same

    price

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    Hadrian

    "Romanized"and organized the

    empire- built bridges, roads, and

    aqueducts, ruled during the height

    of the Pax Romana, Built Hadrians

    Wall across Britain, strengthened

    borders

    Hannibal

    Carthaginian military commander

    who, in the Second Punic War,

    attempted a surprise attack on

    Rome, crossing the Alps with a

    large group of soldiers, horses, and

    elephants.

    Hatshesput first female pharaoh

    heart organ responsible for memory,

    intelligence and thought

    hellespont

    The waterway/strait that connected the

    Black Sea to the Aegean (major trade

    route). Also the site of the siege of Troy

    during the Trojan War. Also where

    Xerxes crossed using a bridge of boats

    during the Persian Wars.

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    Helots Spartan slaves; given more rights

    in Sparta compared to most Greek

    city-states

    Herodotus"Father of History" --first to write

    accurate accounts of events BUT

    accounts were biased (favored the

    Greeks)!

    Hippocrates "Father of Medicine" --he began to

    base his practices on observations

    of patients instead of "magic."

    HomerAncient Greek writer of epic poems

    the Iliad and the Odyssey were

    first stories written after the Greek

    Dark Ages.

    Horus god of sun and sky

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    Ionic column

    Middle child, slightly more

    d