Ancient East Asia

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Ancient East Asia. 8000 BCE- 600 CE . Sanjin Medjedovic Lydia Yohannes Melisa Cvrk Leidi Ruiz Sonia Patel. 1) Important People - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient East AsiaSanjin MedjedovicLydia YohannesMelisa CvrkLeidi RuizSonia Patel

8000 BCE- 600 CE 1) Important People

Three Sage- Kings: Yao, Shun, and Yu. These kings laid the foundation of Chinese society.1) King Yao- influence brought harmony to all the states in China

(2) King Shun- succeeded Yao. continued Yaos work by ordering the 4 seasons in the year and instituting uniform weights, measures, and units of time.

(3) King Yu- rescued China from the waters of the Yellow River by making a canal, which led the water into the sea without devastating the countryside.

Dynasties- Xia, Shang, and Zhou. brought China under unified rules.

(1) Xia Dynasty- first efforts to organize public life in China. By extending formal control, established a monarchy rule.

(2) Shang Dynasty- Bronze metallurgy transformed Chinese society; enabled to displace the Xia dynasty. managed to dominate the production of bronze in the Yellow River but controlling the access to copper and tin ores by producing large amounts of bronze axes, knives, and spears.

(3) Zhou Dynasty- delivered taxes and tributes that counted toward a major part of Zhous finances. could not maintain control over the political systems. In the early 18th century B.C.E Zhou rulers faced serious problems that brought the dynasty to the point of collapse. By the 5th century BCE, territories ignored the central Govt and used their own resources the strengthen themselves. They fought with high hope that they would lead.

Kong Fuzi- first Chinese thinker who addressed the problem of political and social order in a straightforward way. Also known as Confucius. taught people how to live in an increasingly complex world, by sticking to several fundamentals. Educator and political advisor.Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciple.

Laozi- founder of Daoism

Shang Yang (390-338 BCE) - participated actively in Chinese political affair. was a legalist (devoted their attention exclusively to the states.

Qin Shihuangdi (221 B.C.E.)- The first emperor. established centralized imperial rule.also worked on the project of connecting and extending the Great Wall. buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin.

Qin Dynasty- Emperor Qin Shihuangdi. Located in west China, adopted Legalist policies, agriculture resulted in strong economy. Organized a powerful army equipped with iron weapons. Conquered other states and unified China in 221 B.C.E. The collapse of the Qin dynasty was due to massive public works generated tremendous illness among the people and waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207 B.C.E.

Han dynasty- Liu Bang persistent and disciplined, restored order by 206 B.C.E. Han Wudi, the Martial Emperor (reigned 141-87 B.C.E.), emphasized centralization and expansion. Han Dynasty charged taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries. They established Confucian educational system for training bureaucrats.

The later Han dynasty (25-220 C.E.)- They revolted due to problems of land distribution which led to the collapse of the Han. Afterwards Divisions at court paralyzed the central government and the Han Empire dissolved China was divided into regional kingdoms.

2) Important Places: Yellow River- contains Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence "yellow". Also called "China's Sorrow" because of extensive flooding The Yangzi valley- was a dependable river. Provided two crops of rice per year

3) Important Event: Shang Dynasty- 1766 to 1122 B.C.E. Zhou Dynasty- Zhou forces toppled the Shang Govt in 1122 B.C.E. In 256 B.C.E, the Zhou Dynasty ended, when the last king renounced his position. Xia Dynasty- Came in to being about 2200 B.C.E. Period of Warring States (403-221 BCE)- the violent century of the Zhou Dynasty 1200 B.C.e- Bronze metallurgy and horse-drawn chariots reached China. 1st millennium B.C.E- the technology of iron metallurgy spread to China. The production of iron expanded. 771 B.C.E- nomadic people invaded China from the west. Beginning of the 6th century B.C.E- iron production increased dramatically in China. Iron Materials became useful in everyday life. 19th century B.C.E- peasants working in the field around Anyang, discovered many oracle bones with inscription in archaic Chinese writing.

JAPAN:developed a system of feudalism, Feudalism was accompanied by a set of political values that emphasized mutual ties, obligations, and loyalties. The Japanese elites - who came to be known as daimyos - found military talent in the samurai, professional warriors who swore loyalty to them. Samurais lived by a warrior's code - the bushido -that required them to commit suicide (seppuku) by disembowelment if they failed their masters.Shintoism -This native religion venerated ancestors, but also had a host of nature spirits and deities. Confucianism and Buddhism did not replace Shintoism, and it remained as an important religion in Japan. KOREA:The oldest pottery on the Korean peninsula by archaeologists dates back to c. 8,000 BCE, and is found across the peninsula.

The usage of bronze as a weapon made banding together in groups necessary, and the Mumun pottery period marks the beginning of complex societies in Korea. Remains of villages from this time have been found, as well as the development of iron technology.

The end of the Mumun Pottery period marks the beginning of the Proto-Three Kingdoms period or Several States period. Many small states emerged at this time as a result of the fall of Koreas first dynasty, the Gojoseon dynasty, which, according to legend, was founded during the Jeulmun Pottery period in 2,333 BCE.

Jeulmun Pottery Period: c. 8,000 BCE - 1,500 BCE Mumun Pottery Period: c. 1,500 BCE - 300 BCE

VOCABULARY:Tian: Chinese word meaning heaven.Monarchial: The act of being monarch.Loess Soil: A rich soil that is easy to work with and build stuff.Excavation: an area in which excavating has been done or is in progress, as an archaeological site.Monopolize: to obtain exclusive obsession of.Steppes: An extensive plainOracle Bones: a group of inscribed animal bones and shells discovered in China and used originally in divination by the ancient Chinese, during the Shang DynastyDynasty: a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group: the Ming dynasty. Hieroglyphics: designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented.Confucian: an adherent of the teachings of Confucius.Daoism: philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-Tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural eventsDao- key element on Chinese Philosophy that means the way of nature or the way of the cosmosLi- Confucian concept, a sense of prosperity

Timeline

HAVING REGULATIONS No country is permanently strong. Nor is any country permanently weak. If conformers to law are strong, the country is strong; if conformners to law are weak, the counrry is weak.... Any ruler able to expel private crookedness and uphold public law, finds the people safe and the state in order; and any ruler able to expunge private action and act on public law, finds his army strong and his enemy weak. So, find out men following the discipline of laws and regulations, and place chem above the body of officials. Then the sovereign cannot be deceived by anybody with fraud and falsehood.... Therefore, the intelligent sovereign makes the law select men and makes no arbitrary promotion himself. He makes the law measure merits and makes no arbitrary regulation himself. In consequence, able men cannot be obscured, bad characters cannot be disguised; falsely praised fellows cannot be advanced, wrongly defamed people cannot be degraded. To govern the state by law is to praise the right and blame the wrong. The law does not fawn on the noble....Whatever the law applies to, the wise cannot reject nor can the brave defy. Punishment for fault never skips ministers, reward for good never misses commoners. Therefore, to correct the faults of the high, co rebuke the vices of the low, to suppress disorders, to decide against mistakes, to subdue the arrogant, to straighten the crooked, and to unify the folkways of the masses, nothing could match the law. To warn the officials and overawe the people, to rebuke obscenity and danger, and to forbid falsehood and deceit, nothing could match penalty. If penalty is severe, the noble cannot discriminate against the humble. lf law is definite, the superiors are esteemed and not violated. If the superiors are not violated, the sovereign will become strong and able to maintain the proper course of government. Such was the reason why the early kings esteemed Legalism and handed it down to posterity. Should the lord of men discard law and practice selfishness, high and law would have no distinction Summary: This document can be believed for a variety of reasons. This document was written a by a master Master Han Fei during the time of the Qin Dynasty. During the Qin dynasty there was a legalist view on government. The legalist view was quite different then Confucian and Daoist of the time as it did not focus on personal behavior and conduct but rather on expanding and strengthening the state. The legalist view also had a basis on strict laws and serves punishment for even small crimes. This document was most likely written to promote the dynasty and pretty much was an early form of propaganda.

2. Peasants Protest(from the Book of Songs written during Zhou Dynasty)Source: James Legge,trans. The Chinese Classics, 5 vols. London: Henry Frowde, 1893, 4:171-72

Large rats! Large rats! Do not eat our millet. Three years hav