Ancient civilizations

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Transcript of Ancient civilizations

mesopotamia

mesopotamiaAncient Civilizations

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Home of the first civilizationLocated in modern-day Iraq

Two main regions:

Northern region = Assyria

Southern region = Sumer

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Form of GovernmentKing + council of elders

Elders

Powerful, aristocratic familiesAdvise the king

The king eventually established a dynasty.

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City life in MesopotamiaTemple in the center of the city

Roads connected farms + town + temple

Creation of city-states

Dedicated to patron gods/goddesses

Competition for trade = frequent wars

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The Ziggurat

In the center of the city

Connected heaven and earth (god and man)

The Tower of Babel

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Mesopotamian gods and goddessesWhat can you tell about these deities? Why do the eyes look so big?

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The development of writing

Mesopotamian writing

Cuneiform: Wedge-shaped symbolsUses a stylus to write in clay tabletsMostly for record keeping

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Mesopotamian contributions

Mesopotamian InventionsThe First MapFirst map

Calculations based on 60 (:60, 60 minutes, 360)

First wheel purpose?

Surgery

12-month calendar (every 3 years, add 13th month)

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An early pottery wheel

Why was the first wheel used for pottery?

Why wasnt it used for transportation?

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A mesopotamian calendar

Can you find the twelve months on this calendar?

Why is the calendar designed this way?

Why isnt it laid out in a grid, the way our calendars are?

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Mesopotamian kings

Famous mesopotamian kingsThe Sumerian king list:

Gilgamesh

Sargon

Hammurabi

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gilgamesh

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Gilgamesh: a real king

Brave but ruthless warrior in real life

Legend says he wanted to find immortality

Story recorded in a famous epic poem

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sargon

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Sargon the great

An Akkadian king

Conquered Sumeria and Mesopotamia

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Sargon: founder of a mighty dynastyFirst king to create multiethnic, centrally ruled empire

Founded dynasty that lasted for 150 years

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hammurabi

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Hammurabi: the babylonian law-giver

United city-states into Babylonia

Famous for codifying 282 laws

Carved laws into eight-foot stele

Severe laws

Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth

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Hammurabis justice

Top of the stele: Hammurabi with Shamash, god of justice

Below that picture are columns of laws, written in Akkadian language

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The code of hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi carved into stone

Why was it important for law to be written down (or carved into something)?

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Hammurabis laws written in cuneiform

16 columns of text on the front; 28 columns on the back.

In prologue, Hammurabi invokes the gods

In epilogue, discusses the greatness of his justice

Each law is conditional (if/then)

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