Ancient civilizations

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Transcript of Ancient civilizations

Egypt

EgyptAncient Civilizations

1

egypt How is Egypt divided?

The biggest struggles were over water.

Why would water control and usage lead to such conflict?

Mesopotamia experienced more change than Egypt. Why?

Nile flows North from Ethiopian highlands to the Mediterranean.

Upper Egypt (Southern Egypt closest to Africa) and Lower Egypt (Northern Egypt closest to the Mediterranean and the Delta).

Called a Delta because it is the shape of the Greek letter Delta: a triangle.

What was significant about Egypts irrigation possibilities? The Nile? Look at page 9.(Silt).

Egypt enjoyed more security than Mesopotamia. Why?2

geographyMore security and peace

Isolated

Sea and cataracts (large waterfalls)

Desert

Natural resources to sustain itself

Quote on pg. 19. This security, along with the predictable flood calendar, gave Egyptian civilization a more optimistic outlook than the civilizations of the Tigris and Euphrates, which were more prone to storms, flash floods, and invasions.

What does this suggest?

3

The Pharaoh Ruled by a pharaoh

Term means great house or palace

No codified set of laws

nomarchs = Egyptian governors

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religion dominated egyptian lifePolytheistic

740 gods in Egypt; blended or combined gods

Egyptian gods took various forms

Animals, humans, nature forms (sun, moon, etc.)

Pharaoh: gods spokesman or deity himself

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Egyptian erasOld Kingdom

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Old kingdomRoyal power unchallenged

Pharaoh ruled through family lines

Pharaoh appointed leaders

Pharaoh considered a god

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The pyramids

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Egyptian pyramids

Tombs for pharaohs

Took over 100,000 people over 20 years to build

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A positive view of the afterlife?

Archaeologists believe the ancient Egyptians had positive beliefs about the afterlife.

What is it about the pyramids that leads to this conclusion?

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mummificationEgyptians believed the dead needed their bodies in the next life.they preserved bodies through mummification. The process Took about 70 days. The Brain was hooked and then pulled out through the nose. Other Organs were stored in canopic jars. The Heart was left in the body so it could be weighed in the next life.

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Inside the pyramidinner walls of the pyramids covered with pictures about pharaoh buried therehieroglyphs sacred carvings term coined by greeksoval-shaped designs: cartouches refer to pharaoh or royal family

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imhotep

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Designed the first pyramid

Priest

Served Pharaoh Djoser

Egypts most famous architect

Designed the stepped pyramid

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The stepped pyramidThe first pyramid designed by Imhotep

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the great pyramidPharaoh khufu (Cheops)Worlds oldest structure,Built during Old Kingdom

2,300,000 stone blocks (each 2 tons!)

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KhafrePyramids at gizaBuilt the pyramids at Giza

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The sphinxKhafre Also built the Sphinx, which is part lion - part human.The Greeks named this creature the Sphinx.

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menes

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menes Founded first Egyptian dynasty

Unified Upper and Lower Egypt

Founded Memphis; became his capital

Reigned 62 years

Killed by a hippopotamus

Originally united Upper and Lower Egypt.

Narmer.20

Menes unified crown

Created new crown when he ascended to the throne

How did this crown represent a unified Egypt?

How would this help Menes to rule his people?

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hatshepsut

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hatshepsut

Female pharaoh

Ruled for approximately 22 years

Co-regent with Thutmose III

Wore a false beard

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Hatshepsuts achievements

Extended Egyptian trade

Sent delegates to Punt

Sailors returned with myrrh and frankincense trees

Led successful military campaigns

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Hatshepsut the builder Commissioned 100s of construction projects

Later pharaohs claimed projects as theirs

The temple of karnak

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Amenhotep IV

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Amenhotep iv Opposed priests who worshipped Amon-Re

Monotheistic

Worshipped Aton (suns physical disk)

Changed name to Akhnaton (It pleases Aton)

Moved capital from Thebes to Akhaton

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Amenhotep iv:an intolerant ruler

Amenhohtep IV worshipped Aton.

The people worshipped him.

How would this arrangement serve his purpose as a ruler?

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nefertiti

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Queen nefertiti

Wife of Amenhotep I (Akhnaton)

One of the worlds most beautiful women

Worshipped Aton; people worshipped her and husband

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King tut

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tutenkhamen Replaced Akhnatons successor

The boy king

Married daughter of Akhnaton and Nefertiti

Restored old religion erased memory of Akhnaton

Moved capital back to Thebes

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King tutThis model, made from Tutenkhamens mummy, shows what he may have looked like in real life.Treasures from king tuts tomb

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Ramses ii

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Ramses ii:the pharaoh of the bible?

Believed to be Pharaoh referred to in Exodus

Lived during the New Kingdom

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Another great builderramesseumAbu simbel

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Egyptian erasMiddle Kingdom

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The middle kingdomUpper and Lower Egypt reunited

Capital moved from Thebes back to Memphis

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Middle kingdom: a new kind of pharaohFunerary MaskMore directly concerned with his people

Unlike earlier pharaohs (absolute, distant, god-king)

Art shows change in pharaohs attitude

More careworn, brooding

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Egyptian erasnew Kingdom

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New kingdomLion temple In sudanForeign expansion

Temples built in Sudan (1,300 miles away)

Egypts economic, political power at its height

Luxury, cosmopolitanism in royal court

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new kingdom: fame & wonder63 tombs in valley of the kingsReign of famous pharaohs:

HatshepsutAmenhotep IVTutankhamenRamses I and II

Many pyramids built

Valley of the Kings

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NEW KINGDOM: HYKSOS invade EgyptName means chief of foreign lands

Ruthless invaders from the East

Conquered Nile Delta

Probably Amorites

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New kingdom: War and devastation

Hyksos brought new weapons and military techniques Egyptians more militaristic after contact with Hyksos

Egyptians probably drove out Hyksos during Moses time

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