Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient Civilizations. The Asian World. Peoples of East and South Asia. China : Sui dynasty Tang dynasty Song dynasty Yuan dynasty. Sui Dynasty. China fell into chaos after Han dynasty ended in 220 581, Sui dynasty was set up/ Unified China/ short lived - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient Civilizations

  • Ancient CivilizationsThe Asian World

  • China:Sui dynastyTang dynastySong dynastyYuan dynastyPeoples of East and South Asia

  • Sui DynastyChina fell into chaos after Han dynasty ended in 220581, Sui dynasty was set up/ Unified China/ short livedEmperor Sui Yangdia built the Grand Canal that linked Yellow River & Yangzte RiverCanal made it easier to ship rice north & southYangdi used forced labor to build the canalExtravagant living, high taxes, & military failures caused a rebellion & dynasty ended

  • Grand Canal of China

  • Tang DynastyLasted from 618-907Tang rulers began by instituting reforms, restoring civil service examination for recruiting civilian bureaucrats, & trying to stabilize the economy by giving land to peasants and breaking up the power of large landownersExtended control north to control TibetEstablished diplomatic relations with people of SE Asia & Koreas

  • Tang DynastyBrought about its own destruction/ Rulers were not able to prevent plotting & government corruptionTang Xuanzang = emperor/ fell in love with a commoners daughter/ Upset general demanded someone pay for war & strive & forced the woman to hang herselfUighurs, northern tribal group of Turkic speaking people ended the Tang dynasty in early 10th century/were hired to fight for Tang but overthrew them insteadLed China into civil war

  • Song DynastyRuled from 960-1279/ major period of economic & cultural achievementUighurs still caused the Song dynasty a problem/ lost control of TibetIn order to stay in power, Song became allied with MongolsWithin a few years, Mongols turned on the Song & overthrew them creating a Mongol dynasty

  • Chinese Government & Economy700 years from the beginning of Sui to the end of the SongChina had a large bureaucracy/ outside the capital, government had a structure of provinces, districts, & villagesAgriculture, manufacturing, & trade grew dramatically between Sui & SongPrimarily a farming societyReform efforts & advances in farming techniques created an abundance of food

  • Chinese Government & economyChinese began to make steel which was used to make swords & sicklesIntro of cotton led to new kinds of clothesGunpowder invented during the Tang dynasty/ used to make explosives a weapon called fire lanceWoodblock printing was developed during Tang dynasty led to books being mass producedSilk Road was revived during the Tang dynasty due to unification with SW Asia

  • Sickle Fire Lance

  • Chinese SocietyMarco Polo described Hangzhou, capital of Song, as a ParadiseMajority of Chinese lived off the land and lived in villages/ Most hardly left their villages during their entire lifeStatus of women was very low/ female children were considered less desirable than males/ female infants might even be killed if there was not enough food for allWives became part of their husbands familiesHer parents would provide a dowry to the husband

  • Mongols

  • Mongol EmpireMongols came from present day MongoliaOrganized loosely into clans/ Temujin gradually unified the MongolsIn 1206, Temujin was elected Genghis Khan strong ruler at a massive meeting in the GobiGenghis devoted himself to conquests/Mongols created the largest land empire in history/Comprised of much of the Eurasian landmass/capital was KarakorumGenghis died in 1227/ empire was divided among his sons/ attacked Persians, Abbasids, and Song

  • Temujin: Genghis Khan United Mongol Clans

  • Mongol Dynasty in ChinaWhen attacking the Song, Mongols first experienced gunpowder & the fire-lanceIn 1279, Kublai Khan completed the conquering of Song & established Yuan dynasty in China/ established capital of Khanbaliq = now known as BeijingUnder Kublai, Mongol forces advanced against Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, & Japan/ Mongol military tactics of cavalry charges & siege warfare were not effective in these largely, tropical hilly regions & the Mongol campaigns failed

  • Mongol Dynasty in ChinaMongols were successful at ruling ChinaAdapted to the Chinese political system & used Chinese bureaucrats Mongols formed their own class = staffing the highest positions in the bureaucracyMongols won support of Chinese people due to the economic prosperity & social stability the Mongols brought with themMarco Polo wrote stories about how wonderful Khanbaliq was

  • Mongol Dynasty in ChinaMongol dynasty fell apart due to problems that affected the other dynasties; too much spending on foreign conqests, corruption, growing internal stabilityIn 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang, son of a peasant, formed an army & ended the Mongol dynasty & established the Ming dynasty

  • Zhu Yuanzhang: OverthrewThe Yuan Dynasty

  • Religion & GovernmentBuddhism & Daoism emerged to rival Confucianism during Sui & Tang dynastiesConfucianism reemerged at the end of the Tang period & held dominance until early 20th centuryBuddhism came to China in 1st century a.d. / brought by Indian missionaries & merchantsDue to instability after the collapse of the Han dynasty, both Buddhism & Daoism attracted many people; especially ruling classes, intellectuals, & wealthy

  • Religion & GovernmentEarly Tang rulers supported monasteries/ Buddhists & Daoists become advisors at courtBuddhism was attacked for being a foreign religion/ Buddhist monasteries held lands & serfs; with these holdings came corruptionLate in the Tang period the government destroyed many Buddhist temples & forced thousands of monks to return to secular lifeOfficial support went to reviving Confucianism

  • Neo-ConfucianismNeo-Confucianism = differed by teaching the world is real & that fulfillment comes from participationNeo-Confucianist divided the world into material & spiritual worlds & that humans linked the twoHumans live in the material world but are linked with the Supreme UltimateThe goal of humans is to unify with the Supreme Ultimate through a careful examination of moral principles that rule the universe

  • Chinese Literature & ArtInvention of printing during Tang dynasty made literature available & very popularPoetry became big/ 2,200 authors wrote at least 48,000 poems/ poems celebrated beauty of nature, changes of seasons, & joys of friendshipsLi Bo & Duo Fo = 2 most popular poets/ Li Bo s poems were memorized by Chinese school children for centuries/ Duo Fo = serious Confucian concerned with social justice & the poor

  • Chinese ArtLandscape painting reached its height during the Song & Mongol dynastiesPainters went into the mountains to paint & find the Dao or Way = natureLandscape paintings reflects the Daoist search for balance between earth & waterCeramics & Tang-period porcelain began to flourishPorcelain did not reach Europe until eighteenth century

  • Peoples of East and South AsiaJapan:Yamato clanFujiwara familyMinamoto shogunateAshikaga shogunate

  • Japan GeographyLies on the Ring of FireArchipelago 4 largest islands =Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, KyushuCapital = Tokyo, on HonshuIslands are peaks of volcanic mountainsIslands are covered with rugged mountains and steep hillsClimate is heavily affected by ocean currents; varies from tropical in south to cool in northAbout size of California

  • Rise of Japanese StateJapanese first settled in Yamato plain; near present day Osaka & KyotoSociety was compromised of clans; people were divided into small aristocratic classes and latter classes of farmers, artisans, & servantsLocal rulers protected the population in return for a share of the harvestShotuku Taishi tried to unify the Japanese clans to resist Chinese invasion/ To do this he imitated the Chinese structure of government

  • Japanese StateRuler was portrayed as a divine figure & the symbol of JapanTaishis successor continued to emulate Chinese model/ centralized governmentAfter Taishis (622) death, Fujiwara clan gained powerFujiwara ruler moved capital to Nara/ used the title Son of Heaven/ central government declined794, emperor moved the capital to Heian (present day Kyoto)government returned decentralized system that existed before Taishi

  • Fujiwara Family Gained Power

  • JapanDuring Heian period, peasants would give their land to aristocrats to avoid paying high taxes, becoming tenant farmersLanded aristocrats increasingly turned to military power to pursue interests/ led to creation of Samurai those who serve = knights who had own code of Bushido way of warrior were loyal to their lord & employerLate 12th century, Japanese wealthy families were in constant constant civil war

  • JapanNobleman Minamoto Yoritomo defeated several rivals & set up his power near modern Tokyo & created a centralized government called a shogunateShogunate = centralized government under a shogun, military ruler, not an emperorYoritomos Kamakura shogunate lasted from 1192 to 13331281 Kublai Khan invaded with superior forces, but a typhoon destroyed the entire Mongol fleetJapan would not have foreign invaders again until 1945(end of WWII)

  • JapanPower of Aristocrats grew during the 14th & 15th centuriesDaimyo = heads of families/ controlled vast land estates that were tax exemptDaimyo relied on samurais to keep controlBy 1500 central power had disappearedOnin War = civil war/ almost destroyed Kyoto/ rivalries of powerful lords pushed Japan into chaos

  • Life in Early JapanLargely a farming societyDue to heavy rainfall, farmers grew riceTrade & manufacturing began to develop during the Kamakura period/ Industries = paper, iron casting, & porcelainForeign trade with Korea & China emerged in 11th centuryWomen had a level of equality with men in early Japan/ 8th century law guaranteed inheritance rights for women/ abandoned wives could divorce & remarry

  • Life in Early JapanWomen were still considered subordinate to menHusband could divorce on the grounds of the wife talking too much, having a serious illness, or unable to produce a male childWomen played an active role in various aspects of societyEarly Japanese worshipped spirits called kami that resided in nature/ Beliefs evolved into Shinto which became the state religionShinto = the Sacred Way or Way of the Gods is still practiced today

  • ShintoEarly Japanese worshipped spirits called kami that resided in nature/ Beliefs evolved into Shinto which became the state religionShinto = the Sacred Way or Way of the Gods is still practiced todayShinto = state doctrine that believes there is a connection between the divinity of the emperor & the sacredness of the Japanese nationFirst emperor was descended from sun goddess, Amaterasu

  • Shinto Shrine

  • Japanese ReligionSome Japanese turned to Buddhism/ Sect called Zen became most popular/ Zen beliefs became part of samurai warriors codeZen = are different ways to achieve enlightenment/ some say it can come suddenly/ some say it can be achieved only through strong self-discipline, especially meditation

  • Zen Master of the Kamakura Period

  • Early Japan9th-12th centuries, women were the most productive writers of prose in Japan/ women wrote diaries, stories, & novels to pass the timeMen in early Japan believed prose fiction was merely vulgar gossipTale of Genji = written by Muraski Shikibu, around 1,000/ novel that traces the life of the noble Genji as he moves from youthful adventure to a life of sadness & compassion later in lifeLandscape served as a means of expression in Japanese Art & Architecture

  • Tale of

  • Peoples of East and South AsiaKorea:Silla KingdomKoryo dynastyYi dynasty

  • KoreaKorean peninsula is only slightly larger than Minnesota/Very mountainousHeavily influenced by Chinese model of society109 b.c., northern part of peninsula was under Chinese control/Koreans drove them out in the 3rd centuryThree kingdoms emerged; Koguryo in the north/ Paekche in southwest/ Silla in the southeast = bitter rivals from 4th 7th centurySilla gained control of Korea/ Korea sank into civil war after Silla king was assassinated

  • Korea10th century, Koryo dynasty arose in the north/ unified the country by adopting Chinese political institutions/ stayed in power for 400 yearsMongols seized power in north in 13th centuryKoryo was still able to stay in powerMongol rule was harsh/ thousands of people were forced to make ships for Kublai Khans invasion of Japan1392, Yi Song-gye seized power & founded the Yi dynasty in Korea

  • BuddhismBuddhism was popular for Indian people for hundreds of yearsTheravada Buddhism = teachings of the elders believed in original teachings of Buddha/ saw Buddhism as way of life/ claimed understanding ones self is chief way to gain nirvanaMahayana Buddhism = stressed nirvana was reached through devotion to Buddha/ said Theravada was too strict for common people/Mahayana is religion, not a philosophy/devotion to BuddhaNeither sect remained popular in India/ Hind..IslamBuddhism was successful in other parts of Asia

  • Silla BuddhistTemple

  • India After the Guptas8th century, Islam became popular on Indian subcontinentSuccessful because it arrived at a time of political disunity/Gupta empire collapsed/Indias 70 states warred with each otherEnd of 10th century, Islam expanded as rebellious Turkish slaves founded Islamic state known as Ghazni, in present day AfghanistanFounders son = Mahmud of Ghazni attacked neighboring Hindu kingdoms & expanded his power

  • Expansion of Islam/ IndiaRajputs = Hindu warriors/ fought Mahmud in northern IndiaMahmuds cavalry defeated the slower infantry & elephantsBy 1200, Muslim power was spread all over north India = created a new Muslim state known as the Sultanate of Delhi = eventually expanded power into the Deccan Plateau

  • Islam Comes to IndiaIn the Ghazni State

  • Timur LenkSultanate of Delhi declined by 14th centuryTimur Lenks army raided Delhi & then retreated/ massacred 100,000 Hindu prisonersTimur Lenk ruled a Mongol state based in SamarkandSeized power in 1369 & began conquering/ Mesopotamia & region east of the Caspian SeaHe died in 1405/Death removed a threat from states on the Indian subcontinent

  • Islam & Indian SocietyMuslim rulers separated the Muslim ruling class & the mass of the Hindu populationMuslim rulers were tolerant of other faiths/tried peaceful means to convert/too many #s to convert allMuslim customs were imposed on HindusDistrust, Hatred & violence have always plagued Indian history

  • India Economy Indias chief source of life is agricultureIt was a trade center between Southwest & East Asia(Silk Road)Internal trade decreased during internal strive, but Foreign trade always remained high

  • India CultureArchitecture & prose literature was most important Indian artsArchitects built magnificent temples = each had a central shrine surrounded by a tower, hall for worshippers, entryway, porch, which all set in a courtyardGreatest temples are at Khajuraho/ 20 of the 80 are still standingDandin = master of prose/ wrote The Ten Princes in the 7th century/ power of observation & humor made his writing popular

  • Hindu Temples at Khajuraho

  • Peoples of East and South AsiaSoutheast Asia:Vietnamesethe Khmerthe Thaithe BurmansSrivujaya kingdomSailendra kingdomMajapahit kingdomSultanate of Melaka

  • Southeast AsiaConsists of mainland region & extensive archipelago islandsMainland has many mountain ranges with fertile valleys in betweenSoutheast Asia never unified under a single governmentSeparate & Distinctive culture developed with different languages, religions, & cultural practices

  • VietnamLocated just under ChinaOne of the first people in SE AsiaChina conquered Vietnam in 111 b.c./ however failed to make Vietnam a part of ChinaVietnamese overthrew Chinese occupiers in the 10th centuryDai Viet (Great Viet) Vietnamese was establishedVietnamese adopted Chinese model of governingAdopted Confucianism, Chinese court rituals, & civil service examinationExpanded southward to Gulf of Thailand by 1600

  • Dai Viet Broke From China After 1000 Years

  • SE Asia CivilizationArose in 9th century in present day CambodiaJayavarman united the Khmer people/ he was crowned god-king in 802Angkor-Khmer empire was the most powerful in SE AsiaCapital = Angkor ThomPower of Angkor declined with arrival of the Thai in 14th century/Thai moved southward because of Mongol invasion of ChinaThai converted to Buddhism & borrowed Indian practices to develop their own culture = Thailand

  • SE Asia CivilizationThai founded Ayutthaya on Chao Phraya River = center of Buddhist learningWest of Angkor is Burman Kingdom of PaganBurmans migrated from Tibet to valley of Salween & Irrawaddy riversBurmans converted to BuddhismPagan = active in sea trade/ declined in 13th century because of attacks from Mongols

  • Ayutthaya Buddhist Temples

  • Pagodas at Pagan

  • Malay & IndonesiaMalay peninsula & Indonesian Archipelago were tied to the trade that passed through Indian OceanArea did not unite under a single rulerSrivijaya Kingdom finally emerged Srivijaya kingdom in eastern Java-8th century/ dominated trade through the strait of MalaccaMajapahit eventually became the regions greatest empire1400, Sultanate of Melaka, Islamic state/ became a major trading post on the western coast of Malay Peninsula/converted entire population to Islam

  • SE Asia EconomySE Asian states divided into two categories; agricultural societies & trading societiesTrade reached its height after Muslim conquests of northern IndiaDemand for spices rose = adding to the amount of tradeMerchants from India & Arabian peninsula brought back cloves, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, & precious woods from Indonesian islands

  • SE Asia SocietyHereditary Aristocrats were at the top of society/ held political & economic powerMost lived in cities/ Angkor Thom = major cityFarmers, fishers, artisans, & merchants made up rest of populationMost people were subsistence rice farmers/ paid heavy taxes/rent to local landlords/rulersWomen in SE Asia had more rights than women in China or IndiaWomen worked with men in the fields & were involved in trade

  • SE Asia CultureChinese influence in Vietnam/ Indian influence elsewhereAngkor Wat temple in Cambodia/ temple & observatoryHinduism & Buddhism moved into SE Asia/ old faiths blended with new/King was believed to have a link between the people & the godsTheravada Buddhism eventually became the religion of the masses of people in SE Asia = taught people they could reach nirvana through own efforts/ did not threaten other religions

  • Angkor WatAs Temple andObservatory

  • Hindu Influence In Southeast Asia