Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient Civilizations. India, China, & Mesoamerica. Indus Civilization. Developed between 3000-2500 BCE Two largest cities were Harappa and Mohenjo Daro Well planned cities Running water, sewers, and brick buildings Grid pattern Pictographic writing (still undeciphered) Has 400 symbols - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Ancient Civilizations

  • Ancient CivilizationsIndia, China, & Mesoamerica

  • Indus CivilizationDeveloped between 3000-2500 BCETwo largest cities were Harappa and Mohenjo DaroWell planned citiesRunning water, sewers, and brick buildingsGrid patternPictographic writing (still undeciphered)Has 400 symbolsClear social classesDifferent types of houses: wealthy 2-3 stories, common people one room

  • EconomicsAdvanced AgricultureWheat, rye, peas, rice (maybe)Domesticated animals: chickens, cattle, goats, sheepAbundant crops led to job specialization in cities (like E&M)Craftsmen less skilled than Mesopotamia (stone arrows, poor spears)Harappa and Mohenjo-DaroConnected by villagesMajor trading centers with China, SE Asia, Southern India, and MesopotamiaJade and jewels from SE Asia and ChinaWheeled carts for transportationMesopotamia for olive oil, wool, and leatherPersia for gold, silver, and copper

  • End of IndusBy 1500 BCE civilization had declined (unsure as to why: drought, earthquakes changed course of river, overuse of land, disease)1500 BCE a Indo-European group, the Aryans, overtook IndiaCulture of Aryans blended with the IndiansSanskrit; literary language of IndiaVedas became major books of HinduismPlaced native Indians into inferior class People divided into 4 Varnas and each Varna into sub-classes called JatiAt the bottom were the Pariahs or Untouchables Scholars and priestsRulers and warriorsProfessionalsServantsPariahs

  • Huang He CivilizationMost isolated of the river valleysHuang He (Yellow River) and Chiang Jiang (Yangtze) rivers flood quite oftenXia (shah) Dynasty 4000 Years agofirst, legendary dynastyRuler YuIrrigation and drained floodwatersBeginning of Chinese civilizationNo written records existence is by legend

  • Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 BCE)first to leave written recordsWriting: Oracle BonesWritten on bone and used to foretell futureFarming society ruled by a king and an aristocracybronze metallurgyCentral rule to oversee irrigation and flood control Walled citied, elaborate palaces and tombsAncestor worship developed

  • Zhou Dynasty (1122-256 BCE) Pronounced joe800+ years, longest dynastyMandate of HeavenClaimed they overthrew Shang by will of godsTook steps to centralize government, but local leaders ignored central governmentSet up an agricultural system (nobles & peasants) A.K.A. feudalismCulture Mandarin is standardized as languageLaozi and Confucius both lived during ZhouEmphasis on veneration of ancestorsIf you honored family, society would function wellConfucius asking Laozi about etiquette

  • More ZhouTechnology:ChopsticksIron MetallurgyUse cavalry & crossbowExpanded Chinese territory to Yangtze River Valley (wheat & rice growing areas added)Increased food production and use of ironLost control of western half of empire, last two centuries known as era of warring states

  • Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.)Ruler: Qin Shi Huangdi (1st Emperor) brutal rulerQin name applied to countrys nameUnified the Chinese worldLegalism favored government force; viewed human nature as evilA highly centralized government Standardized coinage, weights, and measuresIrrigation

  • Qin Shi HuangdiUniform writing system, & a law codeManufacture of silk cloth is encouragedNucleus of the Great Wall is constructedBurned books and attacked cultureNational census, tax, and labor serviceDownfall: high taxes, attacks on intellectuals, killed men, brutal punishments, & revolts after Qins death

  • MesoamericaNot a river valley, small rivers and streams near oceanDid not have wheel or large animals for labor, llama biggest animalOlmecs1500 BCE settled around Gulf of MexicoMade figurines out of jade and dressed based on statusPolytheisticBuilt Colossal Heads Dont know why they declinedChavin, early civilization in the AndesCeramics, textiles, goldConstructed religious shrines